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Smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke decrease some plasma antioxidants and increase gamma-tocopherol in vivo after adjustment for dietary antioxidant intakes.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Free radicals in cigarette smoke may cause oxidative damage to macromolecules, contributing to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Decreased plasma antioxidant concentrations may indicate cigarette smoke-related oxidative stress.

OBJECTIVE

We compared the effects on plasma antioxidant concentrations in cotinine-confirmed active and passive smokers with those in nonsmokers, independent of differences in dietary intakes and other covariates.

DESIGN

Plasma samples from 83 smokers, 40 passive smokers, and 36 nonsmokers were analyzed for total ascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, 5 carotenoids, retinol, and cotinine. Groups were compared by using analysis of variance with adjustment for sex, age, race, body mass index, alcohol intake, triacylglycerol concentration, fruit and vegetable intakes, and dietary antioxidants.

RESULTS

After adjustment for dietary antioxidant intakes and other covariates, smokers and passive smokers had significantly lower plasma beta-carotene concentrations than did nonsmokers (0.15, 0.17, and 0.24 micro mol/L, respectively) and significantly higher gamma-tocopherol concentrations (7.8, 7.8, and 6.5 micro mol/L, respectively). Smokers had significantly lower plasma ascorbic acid and beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations than did nonsmokers and passive smokers (ascorbic acid: 43.6, 54.5, and 54.6 micro mol/L, respectively; beta-cryptoxanthin: 0.12, 0.16, and 0.16 micro mol/L, respectively) and significantly lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin than did nonsmokers (0.33 compared with 0.41 micro mol/L). The P values for all the differences described above were < 0.05. No significant differences in plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, alpha-carotene, total carotenoids, lycopene, or retinol were observed.

CONCLUSIONS

These results indicate that cigarette smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette smoke have a significantly lower plasma antioxidant status than do unexposed nonsmokers, independent of differences in dietary antioxidant intakes. Further research is required to explain why plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in smokers and passive smokers than in nonsmokers.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley 94720-7360, USA. mdietric@uclink.berkeley.edu

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Alcohol Drinking
    Antioxidants
    Body Mass Index
    Diet
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Smoking
    Tobacco Smoke Pollution
    Vitamin E

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12499336

    Citation

    Dietrich, Marion, et al. "Smoking and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Decrease some Plasma Antioxidants and Increase Gamma-tocopherol in Vivo After Adjustment for Dietary Antioxidant Intakes." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 1, 2003, pp. 160-6.
    Dietrich M, Block G, Norkus EP, et al. Smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke decrease some plasma antioxidants and increase gamma-tocopherol in vivo after adjustment for dietary antioxidant intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):160-6.
    Dietrich, M., Block, G., Norkus, E. P., Hudes, M., Traber, M. G., Cross, C. E., & Packer, L. (2003). Smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke decrease some plasma antioxidants and increase gamma-tocopherol in vivo after adjustment for dietary antioxidant intakes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77(1), pp. 160-6.
    Dietrich M, et al. Smoking and Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke Decrease some Plasma Antioxidants and Increase Gamma-tocopherol in Vivo After Adjustment for Dietary Antioxidant Intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):160-6. PubMed PMID: 12499336.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke decrease some plasma antioxidants and increase gamma-tocopherol in vivo after adjustment for dietary antioxidant intakes. AU - Dietrich,Marion, AU - Block,Gladys, AU - Norkus,Edward P, AU - Hudes,Mark, AU - Traber,Maret G, AU - Cross,Carroll E, AU - Packer,Lester, PY - 2002/12/25/pubmed PY - 2003/1/15/medline PY - 2002/12/25/entrez SP - 160 EP - 6 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 77 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Free radicals in cigarette smoke may cause oxidative damage to macromolecules, contributing to cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Decreased plasma antioxidant concentrations may indicate cigarette smoke-related oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects on plasma antioxidant concentrations in cotinine-confirmed active and passive smokers with those in nonsmokers, independent of differences in dietary intakes and other covariates. DESIGN: Plasma samples from 83 smokers, 40 passive smokers, and 36 nonsmokers were analyzed for total ascorbic acid, alpha- and gamma-tocopherols, 5 carotenoids, retinol, and cotinine. Groups were compared by using analysis of variance with adjustment for sex, age, race, body mass index, alcohol intake, triacylglycerol concentration, fruit and vegetable intakes, and dietary antioxidants. RESULTS: After adjustment for dietary antioxidant intakes and other covariates, smokers and passive smokers had significantly lower plasma beta-carotene concentrations than did nonsmokers (0.15, 0.17, and 0.24 micro mol/L, respectively) and significantly higher gamma-tocopherol concentrations (7.8, 7.8, and 6.5 micro mol/L, respectively). Smokers had significantly lower plasma ascorbic acid and beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations than did nonsmokers and passive smokers (ascorbic acid: 43.6, 54.5, and 54.6 micro mol/L, respectively; beta-cryptoxanthin: 0.12, 0.16, and 0.16 micro mol/L, respectively) and significantly lower concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin than did nonsmokers (0.33 compared with 0.41 micro mol/L). The P values for all the differences described above were < 0.05. No significant differences in plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, alpha-carotene, total carotenoids, lycopene, or retinol were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that cigarette smokers and nonsmokers exposed to cigarette smoke have a significantly lower plasma antioxidant status than do unexposed nonsmokers, independent of differences in dietary antioxidant intakes. Further research is required to explain why plasma gamma-tocopherol concentrations were significantly higher in smokers and passive smokers than in nonsmokers. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12499336/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/77.1.160 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -