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Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Taurine is a unique amino acid with antioxidant and osmolytic properties. Glutamine serves as the preferred fuel for the gut, liver, and immune cells and as a precursor for antioxidants. Trauma patients have low glutamine concentrations.

OBJECTIVES

We investigated the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on plasma taurine concentrations in patients with severe trauma (injury severity score >20). Additionally, plasma taurine concentrations and organ fluxes were studied in a stressed rat model.

DESIGN

Twenty-nine patients with multiple trauma received glutamine-enriched nutrition and 31 patients received isocaloric, isonitrogenous control solution for 5 d. Plasma taurine and glutamine concentrations were measured. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) received a glutamine-enriched diet (12%, by wt) or a control solution for 2 wk. Plasma taurine concentrations were measured. Taurine fluxes and fractional extraction rates in the liver, kidneys, and gut were assessed with a radioactive microsphere technique.

RESULTS

Both patient groups had low taurine concentrations on day 1. From day 3 onward, the glutamine-fed patients had significantly higher taurine concentrations. Rats fed a glutamine-enriched diet had significantly higher plasma taurine concentrations than did the controls. A high taurine uptake was found in the liver, kidneys, and gut of the glutamine-fed rats. Fractional extraction rates were not significantly different between the rat groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Glutamine enrichment increases plasma taurine in trauma patients and in stressed rats. Because of increased availability, organ fluxes showed a higher taurine uptake in the liver, kidneys, and gut. The reduction in morbidity with glutamine enrichment could be explained in part by increased taurine availability.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Surgery and Clinical Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherland.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Animals
    Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
    Enteral Nutrition
    Female
    Glutamine
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Multiple Trauma
    Rats
    Rats, Wistar
    Taurine
    Trauma Severity Indices

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12499349

    Citation

    Boelens, Petra G., et al. "Plasma Taurine Concentrations Increase After Enteral Glutamine Supplementation in Trauma Patients and Stressed Rats." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 77, no. 1, 2003, pp. 250-6.
    Boelens PG, Houdijk AP, de Thouars HN, et al. Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):250-6.
    Boelens, P. G., Houdijk, A. P., de Thouars, H. N., Teerlink, T., van Engeland, M. I., Haarman, H. J., & van Leeuwen, P. A. (2003). Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77(1), pp. 250-6.
    Boelens PG, et al. Plasma Taurine Concentrations Increase After Enteral Glutamine Supplementation in Trauma Patients and Stressed Rats. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77(1):250-6. PubMed PMID: 12499349.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Plasma taurine concentrations increase after enteral glutamine supplementation in trauma patients and stressed rats. AU - Boelens,Petra G, AU - Houdijk,Alexander P J, AU - de Thouars,Hélène N, AU - Teerlink,Tom, AU - van Engeland,Marina I A, AU - Haarman,Henk J T M, AU - van Leeuwen,Paul A M, PY - 2002/12/25/pubmed PY - 2003/1/15/medline PY - 2002/12/25/entrez SP - 250 EP - 6 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 77 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Taurine is a unique amino acid with antioxidant and osmolytic properties. Glutamine serves as the preferred fuel for the gut, liver, and immune cells and as a precursor for antioxidants. Trauma patients have low glutamine concentrations. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition on plasma taurine concentrations in patients with severe trauma (injury severity score >20). Additionally, plasma taurine concentrations and organ fluxes were studied in a stressed rat model. DESIGN: Twenty-nine patients with multiple trauma received glutamine-enriched nutrition and 31 patients received isocaloric, isonitrogenous control solution for 5 d. Plasma taurine and glutamine concentrations were measured. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) received a glutamine-enriched diet (12%, by wt) or a control solution for 2 wk. Plasma taurine concentrations were measured. Taurine fluxes and fractional extraction rates in the liver, kidneys, and gut were assessed with a radioactive microsphere technique. RESULTS: Both patient groups had low taurine concentrations on day 1. From day 3 onward, the glutamine-fed patients had significantly higher taurine concentrations. Rats fed a glutamine-enriched diet had significantly higher plasma taurine concentrations than did the controls. A high taurine uptake was found in the liver, kidneys, and gut of the glutamine-fed rats. Fractional extraction rates were not significantly different between the rat groups. CONCLUSIONS: Glutamine enrichment increases plasma taurine in trauma patients and in stressed rats. Because of increased availability, organ fluxes showed a higher taurine uptake in the liver, kidneys, and gut. The reduction in morbidity with glutamine enrichment could be explained in part by increased taurine availability. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12499349/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/77.1.250 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -