Nutritional deficiencies in German middle-class male alcohol consumers: relation to dietary intake and severity of liver disease.Eur J Clin Nutr 2003; 57(3):431-8EJ
The purpose of the present study was to compare the nutrient intake and the nutritional status between German middle-class alcohol consumers and non-drinkers.
Cross-sectional study using patients with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and healthy volunteers.
Seventy-six hospitalized German middle-class alcohol consumers with different stages of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 22 healthy control subjects.
Subjects and controls were nutritionally assessed and mineral and vitamin content was measured in blood and urine.
When compared with controls, alcohol consumers had significantly higher intakes of total calories, but intake of non-alcoholic calories did not differ between groups (P<0.05). Among drinkers, there was a decrease in percentage of energy derived from protein and fat and a significant increase in carbohydrates (P<0.05). With the exception of vitamin E, micronutrient intake of alcoholics was equal to that of controls; however, blood vitamin (vitamin C, retinol, lycopene, alpha- and gamma-carotene) and trace element (selenium, zinc) concentrations of alcohol-drinking patients were lower than those of non-drinkers.
From the results of this study it is concluded that in German middle-class male alcohol consumers the status of several micronutrients is disturbed, although dietary intake hardly differs from that in non-alcoholic controls.