The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.Circulation 2003; 107(23 Suppl 1):I4-8Circ
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs for the first time in approximately 100 persons per 100,000 each year in the United States, and rises exponentially from <5 cases per 100,000 persons <15 years old to approximately 500 cases (0.5%) per 100,000 persons at age 80 years. Approximately one third of patients with symptomatic VTE manifest pulmonary embolism (PE), whereas two thirds manifest deep vein thrombosis (DVT) alone. Despite anticoagulant therapy, VTE recurs frequently in the first few months after the initial event, with a recurrence rate of approximately 7% at 6 months. Death occurs in approximately 6% of DVT cases and 12% of PE cases within 1 month of diagnosis. The time of year may affect the occurrence of VTE, with a higher incidence in the winter than in the summer. One major risk factor for VTE is ethnicity, with a significantly higher incidence among Caucasians and African Americans than among Hispanic persons and Asian-Pacific Islanders. Overall, approximately 25% to 50% of patient with first-time VTE have an idiopathic condition, without a readily identifiable risk factor. Early mortality after VTE is strongly associated with presentation as PE, advanced age, cancer, and underlying cardiovascular disease.