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Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy.

Abstract

Evidence is synthesized that foods and food patterns act synergistically to influence the risk of several chronic diseases. Whole-grain consumption and risk of disease are presented as a model of food synergy. Food synergy is defined as additive or more than additive influences of foods and food constituents on health. Risk appears to be lower with consumption of whole grain than of refined grain; that is, benefit accrues when all edible parts of the grain are included (bran, germ, and endosperm). It appears that phytochemicals that are located in the fiber matrix, in addition to or instead of the fiber itself, are responsible for the reduced risk. Risk is further reduced if whole-grain foods are consumed in a diet otherwise high in plant foods. To gain full understanding of the pathways by which food synergies work, it is desirable to use several "top down" approaches, starting with the larger units, namely foods or food patterns, and working down to smaller units that provide protection from disease. Study of foods, food patterns, and individual nutrients or food components in reducing disease risk is seen as complementary. Epidemiologic, clinical trial, and in vitro approaches to such research are needed.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA. jacobs@epi.umn.edu

    Source

    The American journal of clinical nutrition 78:3 Suppl 2003 09 pg 508S-513S

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Chronic Disease
    Diet
    Edible Grain
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Research

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    12936941

    Citation

    Jacobs, David R., and Lyn M. Steffen. "Nutrients, Foods, and Dietary Patterns as Exposures in Research: a Framework for Food Synergy." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 3 Suppl, 2003, 508S-513S.
    Jacobs DR, Steffen LM. Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3 Suppl):508S-513S.
    Jacobs, D. R., & Steffen, L. M. (2003). Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(3 Suppl), 508S-513S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/78.3.508S.
    Jacobs DR, Steffen LM. Nutrients, Foods, and Dietary Patterns as Exposures in Research: a Framework for Food Synergy. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(3 Suppl):508S-513S. PubMed PMID: 12936941.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns as exposures in research: a framework for food synergy. AU - Jacobs,David R,Jr AU - Steffen,Lyn M, PY - 2003/8/26/pubmed PY - 2003/9/17/medline PY - 2003/8/26/entrez SP - 508S EP - 513S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 78 IS - 3 Suppl N2 - Evidence is synthesized that foods and food patterns act synergistically to influence the risk of several chronic diseases. Whole-grain consumption and risk of disease are presented as a model of food synergy. Food synergy is defined as additive or more than additive influences of foods and food constituents on health. Risk appears to be lower with consumption of whole grain than of refined grain; that is, benefit accrues when all edible parts of the grain are included (bran, germ, and endosperm). It appears that phytochemicals that are located in the fiber matrix, in addition to or instead of the fiber itself, are responsible for the reduced risk. Risk is further reduced if whole-grain foods are consumed in a diet otherwise high in plant foods. To gain full understanding of the pathways by which food synergies work, it is desirable to use several "top down" approaches, starting with the larger units, namely foods or food patterns, and working down to smaller units that provide protection from disease. Study of foods, food patterns, and individual nutrients or food components in reducing disease risk is seen as complementary. Epidemiologic, clinical trial, and in vitro approaches to such research are needed. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/12936941/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/78.3.508S DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -