Carbohydrate and fiber recommendations for individuals with diabetes: a quantitative assessment and meta-analysis of the evidence.J Am Coll Nutr 2004; 23(1):5-17JA
To review international nutrition recommendations with a special emphasis on carbohydrate and fiber, analyze clinical trial information, and provide an evidence-based recommendation for medical nutrition therapy for individuals with diabetes. Relevant articles were identified by a thorough review of the literature and the data tabulated. Fixed-effects meta-analyses techniques were used to obtain mean estimates of changes in outcome measures in response to diet interventions. Most international organizations recommend that diabetic individuals achieve and maintain a desirable body weight with a body mass index of </=25 kg/m(2). For diabetic subjects moderate carbohydrate, high fiber diets compared to moderate carbohydrate, low fiber diets are associated with significantly lower values for: postprandial plasma glucose, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. High carbohydrate, high fiber diets compared to moderate carbohydrate, low fiber diets are associated with lower values for: fasting, postprandial and average plasma glucose; hemoglobin A(1c); total, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Low glycemic index diets compared to high glycemic index diets are associated with lower fasting plasma glucose values and lower glycated protein values. Based on these analyses we recommend that the diabetic individual should be encouraged to achieve and maintain a desirable body weight and that the diet should provide these percentages of nutrients: carbohydrate, >/=55%; protein, 12-16%; fat, <30%; and monounsaturated fat, 12-15%. The diet should provide 25-50 g/day of dietary fiber (15-25 g/1000 kcal). Glycemic index information should be incorporated into exchanges and teaching material.