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Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis.

Abstract

The purpose of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits of vitamin D and the role of vitamin D deficiency in increasing the risk of many common and serious diseases, including some common cancers, type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. Numerous epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sunlight, which enhances the production of vitamin D(3) in the skin, is important in preventing many chronic diseases. Because very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, sunlight supplies most of our vitamin D requirement. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the metabolite that should be measured in the blood to determine vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in infants who are solely breastfed and who do not receive vitamin D supplementation and in adults of all ages who have increased skin pigmentation or who always wear sun protection or limit their outdoor activities. Vitamin D deficiency is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia. A new dietary source of vitamin D is orange juice fortified with vitamin D. Studies in both human and animal models add strength to the hypothesis that the unrecognized epidemic of vitamin D deficiency worldwide is a contributing factor of many chronic debilitating diseases. Greater awareness of the insidious consequences of vitamin D deficiency is needed. Annual measurement of serum 25(OH)D is a reasonable approach to monitoring for vitamin D deficiency. The recommended adequate intakes for vitamin D are inadequate, and, in the absence of exposure to sunlight, a minimum of 1000 IU vitamin D/d is required to maintain a healthy concentration of 25(OH)D in the blood.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118-2394, USA.

    Source

    MeSH

    Breast Feeding
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
    Heart Diseases
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
    Neoplasms
    Nutritional Requirements
    Osteoporosis
    Photosynthesis
    Seasons
    Sunlight
    Vitamin D
    Vitamin D Deficiency

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    14985208

    Citation

    Holick, Michael F.. "Vitamin D: Importance in the Prevention of Cancers, Type 1 Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Osteoporosis." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 3, 2004, pp. 362-71.
    Holick MF. Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):362-71.
    Holick, M. F. (2004). Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(3), pp. 362-71.
    Holick MF. Vitamin D: Importance in the Prevention of Cancers, Type 1 Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Osteoporosis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):362-71. PubMed PMID: 14985208.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis. A1 - Holick,Michael F, PY - 2004/2/27/pubmed PY - 2004/3/31/medline PY - 2004/2/27/entrez SP - 362 EP - 71 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 79 IS - 3 N2 - The purpose of this review is to put into perspective the many health benefits of vitamin D and the role of vitamin D deficiency in increasing the risk of many common and serious diseases, including some common cancers, type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. Numerous epidemiologic studies suggest that exposure to sunlight, which enhances the production of vitamin D(3) in the skin, is important in preventing many chronic diseases. Because very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, sunlight supplies most of our vitamin D requirement. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the metabolite that should be measured in the blood to determine vitamin D status. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in infants who are solely breastfed and who do not receive vitamin D supplementation and in adults of all ages who have increased skin pigmentation or who always wear sun protection or limit their outdoor activities. Vitamin D deficiency is often misdiagnosed as fibromyalgia. A new dietary source of vitamin D is orange juice fortified with vitamin D. Studies in both human and animal models add strength to the hypothesis that the unrecognized epidemic of vitamin D deficiency worldwide is a contributing factor of many chronic debilitating diseases. Greater awareness of the insidious consequences of vitamin D deficiency is needed. Annual measurement of serum 25(OH)D is a reasonable approach to monitoring for vitamin D deficiency. The recommended adequate intakes for vitamin D are inadequate, and, in the absence of exposure to sunlight, a minimum of 1000 IU vitamin D/d is required to maintain a healthy concentration of 25(OH)D in the blood. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/14985208/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/79.3.362 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -