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Etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2004; 13(10):1558-68CE

Abstract

Breast cancers classified by estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) expression have different clinical, pathologic, and molecular features. We examined existing evidence from the epidemiologic literature as to whether breast cancers stratified by hormone receptor status are also etiologically distinct diseases. Despite limited statistical power and nonstandardized receptor assays, in aggregate, the critically evaluated studies (n = 31) suggest that the etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancers may be heterogeneous. Reproduction-related exposures tended to be associated with increased risk of ER-positive but not ER-negative tumors. Nulliparity and delayed childbearing were more consistently associated with increased cancer risk for ER-positive than ER-negative tumors, and early menarche was more consistently associated with ER-positive/PR-positive than ER-negative/PR-negative tumors. Postmenopausal obesity was also more consistently associated with increased risk of hormone receptor-positive than hormone receptor-negative tumors, possibly reflecting increased estrogen synthesis in adipose stores and greater bioavailability. Published data are insufficient to suggest that exogenous estrogen use (oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy) increase risk of hormone-sensitive tumors. Risks associated with breast-feeding, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, family history of breast cancer, or premenopausal obesity did not differ by receptor status. Large population-based studies of determinants of hormone receptor-defined breast cancers defined using state-of-the-art quantitative immunostaining methods are needed to clarify the role of ER/PR expression in breast cancer etiology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Room 7084, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. mda27@georgetown.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

15466970

Citation

Althuis, Michelle D., et al. "Etiology of Hormone Receptor-defined Breast Cancer: a Systematic Review of the Literature." Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, vol. 13, no. 10, 2004, pp. 1558-68.
Althuis MD, Fergenbaum JH, Garcia-Closas M, et al. Etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(10):1558-68.
Althuis, M. D., Fergenbaum, J. H., Garcia-Closas, M., Brinton, L. A., Madigan, M. P., & Sherman, M. E. (2004). Etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : a Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored By the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 13(10), pp. 1558-68.
Althuis MD, et al. Etiology of Hormone Receptor-defined Breast Cancer: a Systematic Review of the Literature. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004;13(10):1558-68. PubMed PMID: 15466970.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancer: a systematic review of the literature. AU - Althuis,Michelle D, AU - Fergenbaum,Jennifer H, AU - Garcia-Closas,Montserrat, AU - Brinton,Louise A, AU - Madigan,M Patricia, AU - Sherman,Mark E, PY - 2004/10/7/pubmed PY - 2005/1/8/medline PY - 2004/10/7/entrez SP - 1558 EP - 68 JF - Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology JO - Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. VL - 13 IS - 10 N2 - Breast cancers classified by estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) expression have different clinical, pathologic, and molecular features. We examined existing evidence from the epidemiologic literature as to whether breast cancers stratified by hormone receptor status are also etiologically distinct diseases. Despite limited statistical power and nonstandardized receptor assays, in aggregate, the critically evaluated studies (n = 31) suggest that the etiology of hormone receptor-defined breast cancers may be heterogeneous. Reproduction-related exposures tended to be associated with increased risk of ER-positive but not ER-negative tumors. Nulliparity and delayed childbearing were more consistently associated with increased cancer risk for ER-positive than ER-negative tumors, and early menarche was more consistently associated with ER-positive/PR-positive than ER-negative/PR-negative tumors. Postmenopausal obesity was also more consistently associated with increased risk of hormone receptor-positive than hormone receptor-negative tumors, possibly reflecting increased estrogen synthesis in adipose stores and greater bioavailability. Published data are insufficient to suggest that exogenous estrogen use (oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy) increase risk of hormone-sensitive tumors. Risks associated with breast-feeding, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, family history of breast cancer, or premenopausal obesity did not differ by receptor status. Large population-based studies of determinants of hormone receptor-defined breast cancers defined using state-of-the-art quantitative immunostaining methods are needed to clarify the role of ER/PR expression in breast cancer etiology. SN - 1055-9965 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15466970/full_citation L2 - http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15466970 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -