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Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The authors examined the relationship between maternal antibody to toxoplasmosis and the risk of schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders in offspring. Toxoplasmosis is known to adversely affect fetal brain development.

METHOD

In a nested case-control design of a large birth cohort born between 1959 and 1967, the authors conducted serological assays for Toxoplasma antibody on maternal serum specimens from pregnancies giving rise to 63 cases of schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 123 matched comparison subjects. Toxoplasma immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody was quantified by using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. The Ig titers were classified into three groups: negative (<1:16) (reference), moderate (1:16-1:64), and high (> or =1:128).

RESULTS

The adjusted odds ratio of schizophrenia/schizophrenia spectrum disorders for subjects with high maternal Toxoplasma IgG antibody titers was 2.61 (95% confidence interval=1.00-6.82). There was no association between moderate Toxoplasma Ig antibody titers and the risk of schizophrenia/spectrum disorders.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. The findings may be explained by reactivated infection or an effect of the antibody on the developing fetus. Given that toxoplasmosis is a preventable infection, the findings, if replicated, may have implications for reducing the incidence of schizophrenia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Dr., Unit 23, New York, NY 10032, USA. asb11@columbia.edu

    , , , ,

    Source

    The American journal of psychiatry 162:4 2005 Apr pg 767-73

    MeSH

    Adult
    Animals
    Antibodies, Protozoan
    Case-Control Studies
    Cohort Studies
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Immunoglobulin G
    Infant, Newborn
    Male
    Maternal Exposure
    Pregnancy
    Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic
    Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors
    Schizophrenia
    Seroepidemiologic Studies
    Toxoplasma
    Toxoplasmosis

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15800151

    Citation

    Brown, Alan S., et al. "Maternal Exposure to Toxoplasmosis and Risk of Schizophrenia in Adult Offspring." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 4, 2005, pp. 767-73.
    Brown AS, Schaefer CA, Quesenberry CP, et al. Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(4):767-73.
    Brown, A. S., Schaefer, C. A., Quesenberry, C. P., Liu, L., Babulas, V. P., & Susser, E. S. (2005). Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(4), pp. 767-73.
    Brown AS, et al. Maternal Exposure to Toxoplasmosis and Risk of Schizophrenia in Adult Offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162(4):767-73. PubMed PMID: 15800151.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. AU - Brown,Alan S, AU - Schaefer,Catherine A, AU - Quesenberry,Charles P,Jr AU - Liu,Liyan, AU - Babulas,Vicki P, AU - Susser,Ezra S, PY - 2005/4/1/pubmed PY - 2005/5/18/medline PY - 2005/4/1/entrez SP - 767 EP - 73 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 162 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relationship between maternal antibody to toxoplasmosis and the risk of schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders in offspring. Toxoplasmosis is known to adversely affect fetal brain development. METHOD: In a nested case-control design of a large birth cohort born between 1959 and 1967, the authors conducted serological assays for Toxoplasma antibody on maternal serum specimens from pregnancies giving rise to 63 cases of schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 123 matched comparison subjects. Toxoplasma immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody was quantified by using the Sabin-Feldman dye test. The Ig titers were classified into three groups: negative (<1:16) (reference), moderate (1:16-1:64), and high (> or =1:128). RESULTS: The adjusted odds ratio of schizophrenia/schizophrenia spectrum disorders for subjects with high maternal Toxoplasma IgG antibody titers was 2.61 (95% confidence interval=1.00-6.82). There was no association between moderate Toxoplasma Ig antibody titers and the risk of schizophrenia/spectrum disorders. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia. The findings may be explained by reactivated infection or an effect of the antibody on the developing fetus. Given that toxoplasmosis is a preventable infection, the findings, if replicated, may have implications for reducing the incidence of schizophrenia. SN - 0002-953X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15800151/full_citation L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/full/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.4.767?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&amp;rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&amp;rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -