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Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dairy intake may increase prostate cancer risk, but whether this is due to calcium's suppression of circulating vitamin D remains unclear. Findings on calcium and vitamin D intake and prostate cancer are inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE

We examined the association of dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer.

DESIGN

In a prospective study of 3612 men followed from 1982-1984 to 1992 for the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 131 prostate cancer cases were identified. Dietary intake was estimated from questionnaires completed in 1982-1984. Relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race, and other covariates.

RESULTS

Compared with men in the lowest tertile for dairy food intake, men in the highest tertile had a relative risk (RR) of 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.9; trend P = 0.05). Low-fat milk was associated with increased risk (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2; third compared with first tertile; trend P = 0.02), but whole milk was not (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.3; third compared with first tertile; trend P = 0.35). Dietary calcium was also strongly associated with increased risk (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.5; third compared with first tertile; trend P = 0.001). After adjustment for calcium intake, neither vitamin D nor phosphorus was clearly associated with risk.

CONCLUSIONS

Dairy consumption may increase prostate cancer risk through a calcium-related pathway. Calcium and low-fat milk have been promoted to reduce risk of osteoporosis and colon cancer. Therefore, the mechanisms by which dairy and calcium might increase prostate cancer risk should be clarified and confirmed.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Population Science, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111, USA. m_tseng@fccc.edu

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Calcium, Dietary
    Dairy Products
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Nutrition Surveys
    Prostatic Neoplasms
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States
    Vitamin D

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15883441

    Citation

    Tseng, Marilyn, et al. "Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study Cohort." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 81, no. 5, 2005, pp. 1147-54.
    Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI, et al. Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(5):1147-54.
    Tseng, M., Breslow, R. A., Graubard, B. I., & Ziegler, R. G. (2005). Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 81(5), pp. 1147-54.
    Tseng M, et al. Dairy, Calcium, and Vitamin D Intakes and Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;81(5):1147-54. PubMed PMID: 15883441.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. AU - Tseng,Marilyn, AU - Breslow,Rosalind A, AU - Graubard,Barry I, AU - Ziegler,Regina G, PY - 2005/5/11/pubmed PY - 2005/6/29/medline PY - 2005/5/11/entrez SP - 1147 EP - 54 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 81 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dairy intake may increase prostate cancer risk, but whether this is due to calcium's suppression of circulating vitamin D remains unclear. Findings on calcium and vitamin D intake and prostate cancer are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association of dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intake with prostate cancer. DESIGN: In a prospective study of 3612 men followed from 1982-1984 to 1992 for the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study, 131 prostate cancer cases were identified. Dietary intake was estimated from questionnaires completed in 1982-1984. Relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, race, and other covariates. RESULTS: Compared with men in the lowest tertile for dairy food intake, men in the highest tertile had a relative risk (RR) of 2.2 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.9; trend P = 0.05). Low-fat milk was associated with increased risk (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2; third compared with first tertile; trend P = 0.02), but whole milk was not (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.5, 1.3; third compared with first tertile; trend P = 0.35). Dietary calcium was also strongly associated with increased risk (RR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.5; third compared with first tertile; trend P = 0.001). After adjustment for calcium intake, neither vitamin D nor phosphorus was clearly associated with risk. CONCLUSIONS: Dairy consumption may increase prostate cancer risk through a calcium-related pathway. Calcium and low-fat milk have been promoted to reduce risk of osteoporosis and colon cancer. Therefore, the mechanisms by which dairy and calcium might increase prostate cancer risk should be clarified and confirmed. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15883441/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/81.5.1147 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -