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Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Diets with a high glycaemic response exacerbate the metabolic consequences of the insulin resistance syndrome. Their effects on the incidence of gall stone disease are not clear, particularly in men.

METHODS

Dietary information was collected as part of the Health Professionals Follow up Study starting in 1986 using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire with follow up until 1998. On biennial questionnaires participants reported new symptomatic gall stone disease, diagnosed by radiology, and whether they had undergone cholecystectomy.

RESULTS

During 12 years of follow up, we documented 1810 new cases of symptomatic gall stones. After adjusting for age and other known or suspected risk factors in multivariate models, the relative risk (RR) for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of carbohydrate intake was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 2.02; p for trend = 0.002). The RR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of dietary glycaemic load was 1.50 (95% CI 1.20, 1.88; p for trend = 0.0008), and 1.18 for dietary glycaemic index (95% CI 1.01, 1.39; p for trend = 0.04). Independent positive associations were also seen for intakes of starch, sucrose, and fructose.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that a high intake of carbohydrate, glycaemic load, and glycaemic index increases the risk of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. These results add to the concern that low fat high carbohydrate diets may not be an optimal dietary recommendation.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose St, Lexington, Kentucky 40536-0298, USA. hpcjt@channing.harvard.edu

    , ,

    Source

    Gut 54:6 2005 Jun pg 823-8

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Cholelithiasis
    Cohort Studies
    Diet
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Glucose
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Prospective Studies
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    15888792

    Citation

    Tsai, C-J, et al. "Dietary Carbohydrates and Glycaemic Load and the Incidence of Symptomatic Gall Stone Disease in Men." Gut, vol. 54, no. 6, 2005, pp. 823-8.
    Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, et al. Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. Gut. 2005;54(6):823-8.
    Tsai, C. J., Leitzmann, M. F., Willett, W. C., & Giovannucci, E. L. (2005). Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. Gut, 54(6), pp. 823-8.
    Tsai CJ, et al. Dietary Carbohydrates and Glycaemic Load and the Incidence of Symptomatic Gall Stone Disease in Men. Gut. 2005;54(6):823-8. PubMed PMID: 15888792.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load and the incidence of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. AU - Tsai,C-J, AU - Leitzmann,M F, AU - Willett,W C, AU - Giovannucci,E L, PY - 2005/5/13/pubmed PY - 2005/7/26/medline PY - 2005/5/13/entrez SP - 823 EP - 8 JF - Gut JO - Gut VL - 54 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Diets with a high glycaemic response exacerbate the metabolic consequences of the insulin resistance syndrome. Their effects on the incidence of gall stone disease are not clear, particularly in men. METHODS: Dietary information was collected as part of the Health Professionals Follow up Study starting in 1986 using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire with follow up until 1998. On biennial questionnaires participants reported new symptomatic gall stone disease, diagnosed by radiology, and whether they had undergone cholecystectomy. RESULTS: During 12 years of follow up, we documented 1810 new cases of symptomatic gall stones. After adjusting for age and other known or suspected risk factors in multivariate models, the relative risk (RR) for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of carbohydrate intake was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 2.02; p for trend = 0.002). The RR for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of dietary glycaemic load was 1.50 (95% CI 1.20, 1.88; p for trend = 0.0008), and 1.18 for dietary glycaemic index (95% CI 1.01, 1.39; p for trend = 0.04). Independent positive associations were also seen for intakes of starch, sucrose, and fructose. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a high intake of carbohydrate, glycaemic load, and glycaemic index increases the risk of symptomatic gall stone disease in men. These results add to the concern that low fat high carbohydrate diets may not be an optimal dietary recommendation. SN - 0017-5749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/15888792/full_citation L2 - http://gut.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15888792 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -