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Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity.

Abstract

Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0434, USA.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Brain
    Disease Outbreaks
    Energy Metabolism
    Feeding Behavior
    Humans
    Insulin Resistance
    Obesity
    Satiety Response

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16166564

    Citation

    Isganaitis, Elvira, and Robert H. Lustig. "Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity." Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 12, 2005, pp. 2451-62.
    Isganaitis E, Lustig RH. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25(12):2451-62.
    Isganaitis, E., & Lustig, R. H. (2005). Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 25(12), pp. 2451-62.
    Isganaitis E, Lustig RH. Fast Food, Central Nervous System Insulin Resistance, and Obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005;25(12):2451-62. PubMed PMID: 16166564.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity. AU - Isganaitis,Elvira, AU - Lustig,Robert H, Y1 - 2005/09/15/ PY - 2005/9/17/pubmed PY - 2006/1/21/medline PY - 2005/9/17/entrez SP - 2451 EP - 62 JF - Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology JO - Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. VL - 25 IS - 12 N2 - Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity. SN - 1524-4636 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16166564/full_citation L2 - http://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/01.ATV.0000186208.06964.91?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -