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Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes.
Nature. 2005 Oct 06; 437(7060):889-93.Nat

Abstract

The influenza A viral heterotrimeric polymerase complex (PA, PB1, PB2) is known to be involved in many aspects of viral replication and to interact with host factors, thereby having a role in host specificity. The polymerase protein sequences from the 1918 human influenza virus differ from avian consensus sequences at only a small number of amino acids, consistent with the hypothesis that they were derived from an avian source shortly before the pandemic. However, when compared to avian sequences, the nucleotide sequences of the 1918 polymerase genes have more synonymous differences than expected, suggesting evolutionary distance from known avian strains. Here we present sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete genome of the 1918 influenza virus, and propose that the 1918 virus was not a reassortant virus (like those of the 1957 and 1968 pandemics), but more likely an entirely avian-like virus that adapted to humans. These data support prior phylogenetic studies suggesting that the 1918 virus was derived from an avian source. A total of ten amino acid changes in the polymerase proteins consistently differentiate the 1918 and subsequent human influenza virus sequences from avian virus sequences. Notably, a number of the same changes have been found in recently circulating, highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses that have caused illness and death in humans and are feared to be the precursors of a new influenza pandemic. The sequence changes identified here may be important in the adaptation of influenza viruses to humans.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Molecular Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA. taubenberger@afip.osd.milNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Historical Article
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

16208372

Citation

Taubenberger, Jeffery K., et al. "Characterization of the 1918 Influenza Virus Polymerase Genes." Nature, vol. 437, no. 7060, 2005, pp. 889-93.
Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Lourens RM, et al. Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature. 2005;437(7060):889-93.
Taubenberger, J. K., Reid, A. H., Lourens, R. M., Wang, R., Jin, G., & Fanning, T. G. (2005). Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature, 437(7060), 889-93.
Taubenberger JK, et al. Characterization of the 1918 Influenza Virus Polymerase Genes. Nature. 2005 Oct 6;437(7060):889-93. PubMed PMID: 16208372.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. AU - Taubenberger,Jeffery K, AU - Reid,Ann H, AU - Lourens,Raina M, AU - Wang,Ruixue, AU - Jin,Guozhong, AU - Fanning,Thomas G, PY - 2005/06/30/received PY - 2005/09/19/accepted PY - 2005/10/7/pubmed PY - 2005/10/28/medline PY - 2005/10/7/entrez SP - 889 EP - 93 JF - Nature JO - Nature VL - 437 IS - 7060 N2 - The influenza A viral heterotrimeric polymerase complex (PA, PB1, PB2) is known to be involved in many aspects of viral replication and to interact with host factors, thereby having a role in host specificity. The polymerase protein sequences from the 1918 human influenza virus differ from avian consensus sequences at only a small number of amino acids, consistent with the hypothesis that they were derived from an avian source shortly before the pandemic. However, when compared to avian sequences, the nucleotide sequences of the 1918 polymerase genes have more synonymous differences than expected, suggesting evolutionary distance from known avian strains. Here we present sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the complete genome of the 1918 influenza virus, and propose that the 1918 virus was not a reassortant virus (like those of the 1957 and 1968 pandemics), but more likely an entirely avian-like virus that adapted to humans. These data support prior phylogenetic studies suggesting that the 1918 virus was derived from an avian source. A total of ten amino acid changes in the polymerase proteins consistently differentiate the 1918 and subsequent human influenza virus sequences from avian virus sequences. Notably, a number of the same changes have been found in recently circulating, highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses that have caused illness and death in humans and are feared to be the precursors of a new influenza pandemic. The sequence changes identified here may be important in the adaptation of influenza viruses to humans. SN - 1476-4687 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16208372/full_citation L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04230 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -