Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents--the next epidemic?Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22(2):297-306CM
To provide an overview of the incidence of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents and provide direction for clinicians who care for children and adolescents.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
The data presented in this review were obtained from published literature and abstracts presented at scientific meetings. Clinical trials and review articles were identified using the search terms 'metabolic syndrome', 'type 2 diabetes mellitus', 'children', and 'adolescents' in a MEDLINE search from 1995-2005. Additionally, the bibliographies of the identified articles were reviewed.
Type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly in children and adolescents worldwide. Changing a child's living environment to include physical activity, and a well balanced, low fat, high fiber diet, are important for the maintenance of a desirable body weight and improving insulin sensitivity. Maintaining euglycemia with metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolinediones, and insulin is recommended. Effective treatment of co-morbid problems such as hypertension and dyslipidemia can decrease the risk of cardiovascular complications.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children will continue to rise until effective measures are taken to prevent obesity in this age group. Ensuring that children have a well-balanced low fat, high fiber, diet, combined with physical activity, will promote weight loss or maintenance, improve insulin sensitivity, and decrease the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pharmacologic therapy is recommended for children who are unable to achieve satisfactory glycemic control through physical activity and diet.