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n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases.

Abstract

Inflammation is part of the normal host response to infection and injury. However, excessive or inappropriate inflammation contributes to a range of acute and chronic human diseases and is characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and other oxidized derivatives), other inflammatory agents (e.g., reactive oxygen species), and adhesion molecules. At sufficiently high intakes, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as found in oily fish and fish oils, decrease the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species and the expression of adhesion molecules. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs act both directly (e.g., by replacing arachidonic acid as an eicosanoid substrate and inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism) and indirectly (e.g., by altering the expression of inflammatory genes through effects on transcription factor activation). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs also give rise to a family of antiinflammatory mediators termed resolvins. Thus, n-3 PUFAs are potentially potent antiinflammatory agents. As such, they may be of therapeutic use in a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory settings. Evidence of their clinical efficacy is reasonably strong in some settings (e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis) but is weak in others (e.g., in inflammatory bowel diseases and asthma). More, better designed, and larger trials are required to assess the therapeutic potential of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in inflammatory diseases. The precursor n-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid does not appear to exert antiinflammatory effects at achievable intakes.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Institute of Human Nutrition, School of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom. pcc@soton.ac.uk

    Source

    The American journal of clinical nutrition 83:6 Suppl 2006 06 pg 1505S-1519S

    MeSH

    Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Cytokines
    Dietary Supplements
    Eicosanoids
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Gene Expression Regulation
    Humans
    Inflammation
    Inflammation Mediators

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    16841861

    Citation

    Calder, Philip C.. "N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, and Inflammatory Diseases." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 6 Suppl, 2006, 1505S-1519S.
    Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S.
    Calder, P. C. (2006). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83(6 Suppl), 1505S-1519S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1505S.
    Calder PC. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, and Inflammatory Diseases. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6 Suppl):1505S-1519S. PubMed PMID: 16841861.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and inflammatory diseases. A1 - Calder,Philip C, PY - 2006/7/18/pubmed PY - 2006/8/10/medline PY - 2006/7/18/entrez SP - 1505S EP - 1519S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 83 IS - 6 Suppl N2 - Inflammation is part of the normal host response to infection and injury. However, excessive or inappropriate inflammation contributes to a range of acute and chronic human diseases and is characterized by the production of inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, and other oxidized derivatives), other inflammatory agents (e.g., reactive oxygen species), and adhesion molecules. At sufficiently high intakes, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), as found in oily fish and fish oils, decrease the production of inflammatory eicosanoids, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species and the expression of adhesion molecules. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs act both directly (e.g., by replacing arachidonic acid as an eicosanoid substrate and inhibiting arachidonic acid metabolism) and indirectly (e.g., by altering the expression of inflammatory genes through effects on transcription factor activation). Long-chain n-3 PUFAs also give rise to a family of antiinflammatory mediators termed resolvins. Thus, n-3 PUFAs are potentially potent antiinflammatory agents. As such, they may be of therapeutic use in a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory settings. Evidence of their clinical efficacy is reasonably strong in some settings (e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis) but is weak in others (e.g., in inflammatory bowel diseases and asthma). More, better designed, and larger trials are required to assess the therapeutic potential of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in inflammatory diseases. The precursor n-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid does not appear to exert antiinflammatory effects at achievable intakes. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/16841861/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1505S DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -