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Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 2(2):366-73CJ

Abstract

Hypomagnesemia has been reported to occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. Despite numerous reports linking hypomagnesemia to chronic diabetic complications, attention to this issue is poor among clinicians. This article reviews the literature on the metabolism of magnesium, incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, implicated contributing factors, and associated complications. Hypomagnesemia occurs at an incidence of 13.5 to 47.7% among patients with type 2 diabetes. Poor dietary intake, autonomic dysfunction, altered insulin metabolism, glomerular hyperfiltration, osmotic diuresis, recurrent metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, and hypokalemia may be contributory. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control, coronary artery diseases, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and foot ulcerations. The increased incidence of hypomagnesemia among patients with type 2 diabetes presumably is multifactorial. Because current data suggest adverse outcomes in association with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent to monitor magnesium routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, 14445 Olive View Drive, Department of Medicine, 2B-182, Nephrology Division, Sylmar, CA 91342, USA. pctp@ucla.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

17699436

Citation

Pham, Phuong-Chi T., et al. "Hypomagnesemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, vol. 2, no. 2, 2007, pp. 366-73.
Pham PC, Pham PM, Pham SV, et al. Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(2):366-73.
Pham, P. C., Pham, P. M., Pham, S. V., Miller, J. M., & Pham, P. T. (2007). Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 2(2), pp. 366-73.
Pham PC, et al. Hypomagnesemia in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2(2):366-73. PubMed PMID: 17699436.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. AU - Pham,Phuong-Chi T, AU - Pham,Phuong-Mai T, AU - Pham,Son V, AU - Miller,Jeffrey M, AU - Pham,Phuong-Thu T, Y1 - 2007/01/03/ PY - 2007/8/21/pubmed PY - 2007/9/26/medline PY - 2007/8/21/entrez SP - 366 EP - 73 JF - Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN JO - Clin J Am Soc Nephrol VL - 2 IS - 2 N2 - Hypomagnesemia has been reported to occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. Despite numerous reports linking hypomagnesemia to chronic diabetic complications, attention to this issue is poor among clinicians. This article reviews the literature on the metabolism of magnesium, incidence of hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, implicated contributing factors, and associated complications. Hypomagnesemia occurs at an incidence of 13.5 to 47.7% among patients with type 2 diabetes. Poor dietary intake, autonomic dysfunction, altered insulin metabolism, glomerular hyperfiltration, osmotic diuresis, recurrent metabolic acidosis, hypophosphatemia, and hypokalemia may be contributory. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to poor glycemic control, coronary artery diseases, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and foot ulcerations. The increased incidence of hypomagnesemia among patients with type 2 diabetes presumably is multifactorial. Because current data suggest adverse outcomes in association with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent to monitor magnesium routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible. SN - 1555-905X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/17699436/full_citation L2 - http://cjasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17699436 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -