Helicobacter pylori-negative duodenal ulcer.Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86(9):1154-7AJ
Most patients with chronic duodenal ulcer (DU) craters have gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori (HP), now thought to be the major cause of DU. A smaller proportion of DU patients have no detectable HP. In this study, we examined the frequency and causes of HP-negative duodenal ulcers. In 302 consecutive patients with endoscopic diagnosis of duodenal ulcer, 284 (94%) were found to have associated HP gastritis, whereas 18 (6%) were HP-negative on histology, culture, and urease test. The largest subgroup of HP-negative patients (8/18) was made up of those who had been taking nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), followed closely (4/18) by patients with recent intake of antibiotics. Causes of DU in the remaining subgroups included two patients with duodenal Crohn's disease, two with Gastrospirillum hominis infection, one with penetrating carcinoma of the pancreas and one with no detectable cause. We conclude that, although the most common causal factor of duodenal ulcer is HP, some 6% of DU's will be HP-negative, signaling unusual etiology. It is now important to identify the cause of duodenal ulcer so as to initiate appropriate therapy.