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Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The daily energy imbalance gap associated with the current population weight gain in the obesity epidemic is relatively small. However, the substantially higher body weights of populations that have accumulated over several years are associated with a substantially higher total energy expenditure (TEE) and total energy intake (TEI), or energy flux (EnFlux = TEE = TEI).

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to develop an equation relating EnFlux to body weight in adults for estimating the rise in EnFlux associated with the obesity epidemic.

DESIGN

Multicenter, cross-sectional data for TEE from doubly labeled water studies in 1399 adults aged 5.9 +/- 18.8 y (mean +/- SD) were analyzed in linear regression models with natural log (ln) weight as the dependent variable and ln EnFlux as the independent variable, adjusted for height, age, and sex. These equations were compared with those for children and applied to population trends in weight gain.

RESULTS

ln EnFlux was positively related to ln weight (beta = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.76; R2 = 0.52), adjusted for height, age, and sex. This slope was significantly steeper than that previously described for children (beta = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.51).

CONCLUSIONS

This relation suggests that substantial increases in TEI have driven the increases in body weight over the past 3 decades. Adults have a higher proportional weight gain than children for the same proportional increase in energy intake, mostly because of a higher fat content of the weight being gained. The obesity epidemic will not be reversed without large reductions in energy intake, increases in physical activity, or both.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Faculty of Health, Medicine, Nursing, and Behavioural Sciences, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. boyd.swinburn@deakin.edu.au

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    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Body Weight
    Child
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Energy Intake
    Energy Metabolism
    Female
    Humans
    Linear Models
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Models, Theoretical
    Obesity
    Prevalence
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    19369382

    Citation

    Swinburn, Boyd A., et al. "Estimating the Changes in Energy Flux That Characterize the Rise in Obesity Prevalence." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, no. 6, 2009, pp. 1723-8.
    Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Lo SK, et al. Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1723-8.
    Swinburn, B. A., Sacks, G., Lo, S. K., Westerterp, K. R., Rush, E. C., Rosenbaum, M., ... Ravussin, E. (2009). Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(6), pp. 1723-8. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27061.
    Swinburn BA, et al. Estimating the Changes in Energy Flux That Characterize the Rise in Obesity Prevalence. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1723-8. PubMed PMID: 19369382.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Estimating the changes in energy flux that characterize the rise in obesity prevalence. AU - Swinburn,Boyd A, AU - Sacks,Gary, AU - Lo,Sing Kai, AU - Westerterp,Klaas R, AU - Rush,Elaine C, AU - Rosenbaum,Michael, AU - Luke,Amy, AU - Schoeller,Dale A, AU - DeLany,James P, AU - Butte,Nancy F, AU - Ravussin,Eric, Y1 - 2009/04/15/ PY - 2009/4/17/entrez PY - 2009/4/17/pubmed PY - 2009/6/13/medline SP - 1723 EP - 8 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 89 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: The daily energy imbalance gap associated with the current population weight gain in the obesity epidemic is relatively small. However, the substantially higher body weights of populations that have accumulated over several years are associated with a substantially higher total energy expenditure (TEE) and total energy intake (TEI), or energy flux (EnFlux = TEE = TEI). OBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop an equation relating EnFlux to body weight in adults for estimating the rise in EnFlux associated with the obesity epidemic. DESIGN: Multicenter, cross-sectional data for TEE from doubly labeled water studies in 1399 adults aged 5.9 +/- 18.8 y (mean +/- SD) were analyzed in linear regression models with natural log (ln) weight as the dependent variable and ln EnFlux as the independent variable, adjusted for height, age, and sex. These equations were compared with those for children and applied to population trends in weight gain. RESULTS: ln EnFlux was positively related to ln weight (beta = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.76; R2 = 0.52), adjusted for height, age, and sex. This slope was significantly steeper than that previously described for children (beta = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.51). CONCLUSIONS: This relation suggests that substantial increases in TEI have driven the increases in body weight over the past 3 decades. Adults have a higher proportional weight gain than children for the same proportional increase in energy intake, mostly because of a higher fat content of the weight being gained. The obesity epidemic will not be reversed without large reductions in energy intake, increases in physical activity, or both. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19369382/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2008.27061 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -