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Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009; 94(7):2464-70JC

Abstract

CONTEXT

In animal studies, exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through only partly understood epigenetic mechanisms. Human long-term follow-up studies on the same topic are few.

OBJECTIVE

The aim was to study the risk of overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal hyperglycemia and outcome in the offspring.

DESIGN AND SETTING

We conducted a follow-up study of 1066 primarily Caucasian women aged 18-27 yr in the Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

PARTICIPANTS

Offspring of women with diet-treated GDM (n = 168) and an unexposed reference group (n = 141) participated, as well as offspring of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 160) and offspring from the background population representing an unexposed reference group (n = 128). The follow-up rate was 56% (597 of 1066).

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Women with body mass index of at least 25 kg/m(2) were considered overweight. The metabolic syndrome was determined by the International Diabetes Federation 2006 criteria.

RESULTS

The risk of overweight was doubled in offspring of women with diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes compared with offspring from the background population, whereas the risk of the metabolic syndrome was 4- and 2.5-fold increased, respectively. Offspring risk of the metabolic syndrome increased significantly with increasing maternal fasting blood glucose as well as 2-h blood glucose (during oral glucose tolerance test).

CONCLUSIONS

Adult offspring of women with diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes are risk groups for overweight and the metabolic syndrome. Intrauterine hyperglycemia may in addition to genetics and other factors contribute to the pathogenesis of overweight and the metabolic syndrome.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Department of Obstetrics, Rigshospitalet, The Capital Region of Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. tine.dalsgaard.clausen@dadlnet.dkNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

19417040

Citation

Clausen, Tine D., et al. "Overweight and the Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Offspring of Women With Diet-treated Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Type 1 Diabetes." The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 94, no. 7, 2009, pp. 2464-70.
Clausen TD, Mathiesen ER, Hansen T, et al. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(7):2464-70.
Clausen, T. D., Mathiesen, E. R., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O., Jensen, D. M., Lauenborg, J., ... Damm, P. (2009). Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 94(7), pp. 2464-70. doi:10.1210/jc.2009-0305.
Clausen TD, et al. Overweight and the Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Offspring of Women With Diet-treated Gestational Diabetes Mellitus or Type 1 Diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(7):2464-70. PubMed PMID: 19417040.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. AU - Clausen,Tine D, AU - Mathiesen,Elisabeth R, AU - Hansen,Torben, AU - Pedersen,Oluf, AU - Jensen,Dorte M, AU - Lauenborg,Jeannet, AU - Schmidt,Lone, AU - Damm,Peter, Y1 - 2009/05/05/ PY - 2009/5/7/entrez PY - 2009/5/7/pubmed PY - 2009/8/7/medline SP - 2464 EP - 70 JF - The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism JO - J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. VL - 94 IS - 7 N2 - CONTEXT: In animal studies, exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease through only partly understood epigenetic mechanisms. Human long-term follow-up studies on the same topic are few. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the risk of overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or type 1 diabetes, and additionally to study associations between estimates of maternal hyperglycemia and outcome in the offspring. DESIGN AND SETTING: We conducted a follow-up study of 1066 primarily Caucasian women aged 18-27 yr in the Center for Pregnant Women with Diabetes, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Offspring of women with diet-treated GDM (n = 168) and an unexposed reference group (n = 141) participated, as well as offspring of women with type 1 diabetes (n = 160) and offspring from the background population representing an unexposed reference group (n = 128). The follow-up rate was 56% (597 of 1066). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women with body mass index of at least 25 kg/m(2) were considered overweight. The metabolic syndrome was determined by the International Diabetes Federation 2006 criteria. RESULTS: The risk of overweight was doubled in offspring of women with diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes compared with offspring from the background population, whereas the risk of the metabolic syndrome was 4- and 2.5-fold increased, respectively. Offspring risk of the metabolic syndrome increased significantly with increasing maternal fasting blood glucose as well as 2-h blood glucose (during oral glucose tolerance test). CONCLUSIONS: Adult offspring of women with diet-treated GDM or type 1 diabetes are risk groups for overweight and the metabolic syndrome. Intrauterine hyperglycemia may in addition to genetics and other factors contribute to the pathogenesis of overweight and the metabolic syndrome. SN - 1945-7197 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/19417040/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-lookup/doi/10.1210/jc.2009-0305 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -