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Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Gastroenterology 2011; 141(1):106-18G

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS

The association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk has been investigated by many studies but is controversial because of inconsistent results and weak observed associations. We summarized the evidence from cohort studies in categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response meta-analyses.

METHODS

We searched PubMed for studies of fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk that were published until the end of May 2010. We included 19 prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer-associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks.

RESULTS

The summary relative risk for the highest vs the lowest intake was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86-0.99) for fruit and vegetables combined, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.98) for fruit, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96) for vegetables (P for heterogeneity=.24, .05, and .54, respectively). The inverse associations appeared to be restricted to colon cancer. In linear dose-response analysis, only intake of vegetables was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (summary relative risk=0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), per 100 g/d. However, significant inverse associations emerged in nonlinear models for fruits (Pnonlinearity<.001) and vegetables (Pnonlinearity=.001). The greatest risk reduction was observed when intake increased from very low levels of intake. There was generally little evidence of heterogeneity in the analyses and there was no evidence of small-study bias.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on meta-analysis of prospective studies, there is a weak but statistically significant nonlinear inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK. d.aune@imperial.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Video-Audio Media

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21600207

Citation

Aune, Dagfinn, et al. "Nonlinear Reduction in Risk for Colorectal Cancer By Fruit and Vegetable Intake Based On Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies." Gastroenterology, vol. 141, no. 1, 2011, pp. 106-18.
Aune D, Lau R, Chan DS, et al. Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(1):106-18.
Aune, D., Lau, R., Chan, D. S., Vieira, R., Greenwood, D. C., Kampman, E., & Norat, T. (2011). Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Gastroenterology, 141(1), pp. 106-18. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.04.013.
Aune D, et al. Nonlinear Reduction in Risk for Colorectal Cancer By Fruit and Vegetable Intake Based On Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies. Gastroenterology. 2011;141(1):106-18. PubMed PMID: 21600207.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nonlinear reduction in risk for colorectal cancer by fruit and vegetable intake based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. AU - Aune,Dagfinn, AU - Lau,Rosa, AU - Chan,Doris S M, AU - Vieira,Rui, AU - Greenwood,Darren C, AU - Kampman,Ellen, AU - Norat,Teresa, Y1 - 2011/04/16/ PY - 2011/01/17/received PY - 2011/03/23/revised PY - 2011/04/05/accepted PY - 2011/5/24/entrez PY - 2011/5/24/pubmed PY - 2011/9/8/medline SP - 106 EP - 18 JF - Gastroenterology JO - Gastroenterology VL - 141 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk has been investigated by many studies but is controversial because of inconsistent results and weak observed associations. We summarized the evidence from cohort studies in categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response meta-analyses. METHODS: We searched PubMed for studies of fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk that were published until the end of May 2010. We included 19 prospective studies that reported relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of colorectal cancer-associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks. RESULTS: The summary relative risk for the highest vs the lowest intake was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.86-0.99) for fruit and vegetables combined, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.83-0.98) for fruit, and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.96) for vegetables (P for heterogeneity=.24, .05, and .54, respectively). The inverse associations appeared to be restricted to colon cancer. In linear dose-response analysis, only intake of vegetables was significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (summary relative risk=0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), per 100 g/d. However, significant inverse associations emerged in nonlinear models for fruits (Pnonlinearity<.001) and vegetables (Pnonlinearity=.001). The greatest risk reduction was observed when intake increased from very low levels of intake. There was generally little evidence of heterogeneity in the analyses and there was no evidence of small-study bias. CONCLUSIONS: Based on meta-analysis of prospective studies, there is a weak but statistically significant nonlinear inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and colorectal cancer risk. SN - 1528-0012 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21600207/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-5085(11)00522-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -