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Smoking and cervical cancer.

Abstract

Cervical cancer (CC) is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; however, CC is a preventable disease, and much effort should be done to prevent it. Persistence of high-risk HPV infection is the strongest epidemiologic risk factor for CC, however it is not sufficient for development of the disease it cofactors should be present. In 2004; IARC listed cervical cancer among those causally related to smoking. Smoking interferes with incidence and prevalence of HPV infection and is associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive CC. Multiple factors seem to intervene on cervical carcinogenesis related with tobacco, especially by direct local carcinogenic effect and local immunosuppression. Smoking addition is also closely related with other confounding factors, like unfavorable psychosocial events, systemic immunity, contraception, and nutrition, which got difficult epidemiologic evaluation of smoking role on cervical carcinogenesis. Smoking habits should be taken in account in clinical practice and in research concerning CC.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade da Beira Interior, Avenida Infante D. Henrique, 6200-506 Covilhã, Portugal.

    Source

    ISRN obstetrics and gynecology 2011: 2011 pg 847684

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21785734

    Citation

    Fonseca-Moutinho, José Alberto. "Smoking and Cervical Cancer." ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 2011, 2011, p. 847684.
    Fonseca-Moutinho JA. Smoking and cervical cancer. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:847684.
    Fonseca-Moutinho, J. A. (2011). Smoking and cervical cancer. ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011, p. 847684. doi:10.5402/2011/847684.
    Fonseca-Moutinho JA. Smoking and Cervical Cancer. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2011;2011:847684. PubMed PMID: 21785734.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Smoking and cervical cancer. A1 - Fonseca-Moutinho,José Alberto, Y1 - 2011/07/14/ PY - 2011/04/24/received PY - 2011/05/25/accepted PY - 2011/7/26/entrez PY - 2011/7/26/pubmed PY - 2011/7/26/medline SP - 847684 EP - 847684 JF - ISRN obstetrics and gynecology JO - ISRN Obstet Gynecol VL - 2011 N2 - Cervical cancer (CC) is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; however, CC is a preventable disease, and much effort should be done to prevent it. Persistence of high-risk HPV infection is the strongest epidemiologic risk factor for CC, however it is not sufficient for development of the disease it cofactors should be present. In 2004; IARC listed cervical cancer among those causally related to smoking. Smoking interferes with incidence and prevalence of HPV infection and is associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive CC. Multiple factors seem to intervene on cervical carcinogenesis related with tobacco, especially by direct local carcinogenic effect and local immunosuppression. Smoking addition is also closely related with other confounding factors, like unfavorable psychosocial events, systemic immunity, contraception, and nutrition, which got difficult epidemiologic evaluation of smoking role on cervical carcinogenesis. Smoking habits should be taken in account in clinical practice and in research concerning CC. SN - 2090-4444 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21785734/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/847684 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -