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Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A better understanding of the environmental factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease should help to prevent occurrence of the disease and its relapses.

AIM

To review current knowledge on dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

METHODS

The PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

RESULTS

Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case-control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be protective. No effect was found of intake of dietary fibres, sugar, macronutrients, total energy, vitamin C, D, E, Carotene, or Retinol (vitamin A) on risk of ulcerative colitis. No prospective data was found on risk related to intake of fruits, vegetables or food microparticles (titanium dioxide and aluminium silicate).

CONCLUSIONS

A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect. These results should be confirmed in other countries and in younger subjects before dietary counselling is recommended in high risk subjects.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Medical Department, Viborg Regional Hospital, Viborg, Denmark. vibeke.andersen@viborg.rm.dk

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Colitis, Ulcerative
    Crohn Disease
    Diet
    Dietary Proteins
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Food
    Humans
    Incidence
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22055893

    Citation

    Andersen, Vibeke, et al. "Diet and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Digestive and Liver Disease : Official Journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, vol. 44, no. 3, 2012, pp. 185-94.
    Andersen V, Olsen A, Carbonnel F, et al. Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44(3):185-94.
    Andersen, V., Olsen, A., Carbonnel, F., Tjønneland, A., & Vogel, U. (2012). Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Digestive and Liver Disease : Official Journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, 44(3), pp. 185-94. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2011.10.001.
    Andersen V, et al. Diet and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44(3):185-94. PubMed PMID: 22055893.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. AU - Andersen,Vibeke, AU - Olsen,Anja, AU - Carbonnel,Franck, AU - Tjønneland,Anne, AU - Vogel,Ulla, Y1 - 2011/11/03/ PY - 2011/05/03/received PY - 2011/09/14/revised PY - 2011/10/03/accepted PY - 2011/11/8/entrez PY - 2011/11/8/pubmed PY - 2012/6/5/medline SP - 185 EP - 94 JF - Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver JO - Dig Liver Dis VL - 44 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the environmental factors leading to inflammatory bowel disease should help to prevent occurrence of the disease and its relapses. AIM: To review current knowledge on dietary risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: The PubMed, Medline and Cochrane Library were searched for studies on diet and risk of inflammatory bowel disease. RESULTS: Established non-diet risk factors include family predisposition, smoking, appendectomy, and antibiotics. Retrospective case-control studies are encumbered with methodological problems. Prospective studies on European cohorts, mainly including middle-aged adults, suggest that a diet high in protein from meat and fish is associated with a higher risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Intake of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid may confer risk of ulcerative colitis, whereas n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be protective. No effect was found of intake of dietary fibres, sugar, macronutrients, total energy, vitamin C, D, E, Carotene, or Retinol (vitamin A) on risk of ulcerative colitis. No prospective data was found on risk related to intake of fruits, vegetables or food microparticles (titanium dioxide and aluminium silicate). CONCLUSIONS: A diet high in protein, particular animal protein, may be associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease and relapses. N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids may predispose to ulcerative colitis whilst n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid may protect. These results should be confirmed in other countries and in younger subjects before dietary counselling is recommended in high risk subjects. SN - 1878-3562 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22055893/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1590-8658(11)00375-6 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -