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Soy intake is associated with lower lung cancer risk: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although several in vitro and animal in vivo studies have suggested that soy or soy isoflavones may exert inhibitory effects on lung carcinogenesis, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results on the association between soy intake and lung cancer.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether an association exists between soy and lung cancer in epidemiologic studies.

DESIGN

We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to February 2011 for both case-control and cohort studies that assessed soy consumption and lung cancer risk. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using fixed-effect or random-effect models.

RESULTS

A total of 11 epidemiologic studies that consisted of 8 case-control and 3 prospective cohort studies were included. A significantly inverse association was shown between soy intake and lung cancer with an overall RR of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.92). Findings were slightly different when analyses were restricted to 5 high-quality studies (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99). In a subgroup meta-analysis, a statistically significant protective effect of soy consumption was observed in women (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.93), never smokers (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.76), and Asian populations (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98).

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings indicate that the consumption of soy food is associated with lower lung cancer risk. Because of different methods used to assess soy consumption across studies, more well-designed cohort studies or intervention studies that use unified measures of soy intake are needed to fully characterize such an association.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    State Key Laboratory of Oncogene and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, China.

    , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Asian Continental Ancestry Group
    Female
    Humans
    Linear Models
    Lung Neoplasms
    Male
    Phytotherapy
    Plant Preparations
    Risk
    Risk Factors
    Seeds
    Sex Factors
    Smoking
    Soy Foods
    Soybeans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22071712

    Citation

    Yang, Wan-Shui, et al. "Soy Intake Is Associated With Lower Lung Cancer Risk: Results From a Meta-analysis of Epidemiologic Studies." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 94, no. 6, 2011, pp. 1575-83.
    Yang WS, Va P, Wong MY, et al. Soy intake is associated with lower lung cancer risk: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(6):1575-83.
    Yang, W. S., Va, P., Wong, M. Y., Zhang, H. L., & Xiang, Y. B. (2011). Soy intake is associated with lower lung cancer risk: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(6), pp. 1575-83. doi:10.3945/ajcn.111.020966.
    Yang WS, et al. Soy Intake Is Associated With Lower Lung Cancer Risk: Results From a Meta-analysis of Epidemiologic Studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(6):1575-83. PubMed PMID: 22071712.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Soy intake is associated with lower lung cancer risk: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. AU - Yang,Wan-Shui, AU - Va,Puthiery, AU - Wong,Man-Yu, AU - Zhang,Huan-Ling, AU - Xiang,Yong-Bing, Y1 - 2011/11/09/ PY - 2011/11/11/entrez PY - 2011/11/11/pubmed PY - 2012/2/4/medline SP - 1575 EP - 83 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 94 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although several in vitro and animal in vivo studies have suggested that soy or soy isoflavones may exert inhibitory effects on lung carcinogenesis, epidemiologic studies have reported inconclusive results on the association between soy intake and lung cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether an association exists between soy and lung cancer in epidemiologic studies. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to February 2011 for both case-control and cohort studies that assessed soy consumption and lung cancer risk. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using fixed-effect or random-effect models. RESULTS: A total of 11 epidemiologic studies that consisted of 8 case-control and 3 prospective cohort studies were included. A significantly inverse association was shown between soy intake and lung cancer with an overall RR of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.92). Findings were slightly different when analyses were restricted to 5 high-quality studies (RR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99). In a subgroup meta-analysis, a statistically significant protective effect of soy consumption was observed in women (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.93), never smokers (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.76), and Asian populations (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74, 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that the consumption of soy food is associated with lower lung cancer risk. Because of different methods used to assess soy consumption across studies, more well-designed cohort studies or intervention studies that use unified measures of soy intake are needed to fully characterize such an association. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22071712/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.111.020966 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -