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Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2).

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores.

DESIGN

Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns.

SETTING

Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire.

SUBJECTS

Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort.

RESULTS

Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β = -6.8, P < 0.05 and β = -6.9, P < 0.001). Findings for lacto-ovo vegetarians (β = -9.1, P < 0.001 and β = -5.8, P < 0.001) were similar. The vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI.

CONCLUSIONS

We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, 24785 Stewart Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

    , , ,

    Source

    Public health nutrition 15:10 2012 Oct pg 1909-16

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Antihypertensive Agents
    Blood Pressure
    Body Mass Index
    Canada
    Cohort Studies
    Diet
    Diet, Vegetarian
    European Continental Ancestry Group
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Fruit
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    United States
    Vegetables

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22230619

    Citation

    Pettersen, Betty J., et al. "Vegetarian Diets and Blood Pressure Among White Subjects: Results From the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2)." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 10, 2012, pp. 1909-16.
    Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, et al. Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(10):1909-16.
    Pettersen, B. J., Anousheh, R., Fan, J., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., & Fraser, G. E. (2012). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutrition, 15(10), pp. 1909-16. doi:10.1017/S1368980011003454.
    Pettersen BJ, et al. Vegetarian Diets and Blood Pressure Among White Subjects: Results From the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(10):1909-16. PubMed PMID: 22230619.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2). AU - Pettersen,Betty J, AU - Anousheh,Ramtin, AU - Fan,Jing, AU - Jaceldo-Siegl,Karen, AU - Fraser,Gary E, Y1 - 2012/01/10/ PY - 2012/1/11/entrez PY - 2012/1/11/pubmed PY - 2012/12/22/medline SP - 1909 EP - 16 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 15 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Previous work studying vegetarians has often found that they have lower blood pressure (BP). Reasons may include their lower BMI and higher intake levels of fruit and vegetables. Here we seek to extend this evidence in a geographically diverse population containing vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and omnivores. DESIGN: Data are analysed from a calibration sub-study of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) cohort who attended clinics and provided validated FFQ. Criteria were established for vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, partial vegetarian and omnivorous dietary patterns. SETTING: Clinics were conducted at churches across the USA and Canada. Dietary data were gathered by mailed questionnaire. SUBJECTS: Five hundred white subjects representing the AHS-2 cohort. RESULTS: Covariate-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that the vegan vegetarians had lower systolic and diastolic BP (mmHg) than omnivorous Adventists (β = -6.8, P < 0.05 and β = -6.9, P < 0.001). Findings for lacto-ovo vegetarians (β = -9.1, P < 0.001 and β = -5.8, P < 0.001) were similar. The vegetarians (mainly the vegans) were also less likely to be using antihypertensive medications. Defining hypertension as systolic BP > 139 mmHg or diastolic BP > 89 mmHg or use of antihypertensive medications, the odds ratio of hypertension compared with omnivores was 0.37 (95 % CI 0.19, 0.74), 0.57 (95 % CI 0.36, 0.92) and 0.92 (95 % CI 0.50, 1.70), respectively, for vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians and partial vegetarians. Effects were reduced after adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude from this relatively large study that vegetarians, especially vegans, with otherwise diverse characteristics but stable diets, do have lower systolic and diastolic BP and less hypertension than omnivores. This is only partly due to their lower body mass. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22230619/full_citation L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980011003454/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -