Prime

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The incidence of AD rises exponentially with age and its prevalence will increase significantly worldwide in the next few decades. Inflammatory processes have been suspected in the pathogenesis of the disease.

OBJECTIVES

To review the efficacy and side effects of aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of AD, compared to placebo.

SEARCH METHODS

We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 12 April 2011 using the terms: aspirin OR "cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor" OR aceclofenac OR acemetacin OR betamethasone OR celecoxib OR cortisone OR deflazacort OR dexamethasone OR dexibruprofen OR dexketoprofen OR diclofenac sodium OR diflunisal OR diflusinal OR etodolac OR etoricoxib OR fenbufen OR fenoprofen OR flurbiprofen OR hydrocortisone OR ibuprofen OR indometacin OR indomethacin OR ketoprofen OR lumiracoxib OR mefenamic OR meloxicam OR methylprednisolone OR nabumetone OR naproxen OR nimesulide OR "anti-inflammatory" OR prednisone OR piroxicam OR sulindac OR tenoxicam OR tiaprofenic acid OR triamcinolone OR NSAIDS OR NSAID. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), numerous trial registries (including national, international and pharmacuetical registries) and grey literature sources.

SELECTION CRITERIA

All randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in AD.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

One author assessed risk of bias of each study and extracted data. A second author verified data selection.

MAIN RESULTS

Our search identified 604 potentially relevant studies. Of these, 14 studies (15 interventions) were RCTs and met our inclusion criteria. The numbers of participants were 352, 138 and 1745 for aspirin, steroid and NSAIDs groups, respectively. One selected study comprised two separate interventions. Interventions assessed in these studies were grouped into four categories: aspirin (three interventions), steroids (one intervention), traditional NSAIDs (six interventions), and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (five interventions). All studies were evaluated for internal validity using a risk of bias assessment tool. The risk of bias was low for five studies, high for seven studies, and unclear for two studies.There was no significant improvement in cognitive decline for aspirin, steroid, traditional NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors. Compared to controls, patients receiving aspirin experienced more bleeding while patients receiving steroid experienced more hyperglycaemia, abnormal lab results and face edema. Patients receiving NSAIDs experienced nausea, vomiting, elevated creatinine, elevated LFT and hypertension. A trend towards higher death rates was observed among patients treated with NSAIDS compared with placebo and this was somewhat higher for selective COX-2 inhibitors than for traditional NSAIDs.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

Based on the studies carried out so far, the efficacy of aspirin, steroid and NSAIDs (traditional NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors) is not proven. Therefore, these drugs cannot be recommended for the treatment of AD.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Family Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok and Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care,University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. drdarinj@yahoo.com.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Alzheimer Disease
    Anti-Inflammatory Agents
    Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
    Aspirin
    Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
    Glucocorticoids
    Humans
    Inflammation
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22336816

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. AU - Jaturapatporn,Darin, AU - Isaac,Mokhtar Gad El Kareem Nasr, AU - McCleery,Jenny, AU - Tabet,Naji, Y1 - 2012/02/15/ PY - 2012/2/17/entrez PY - 2012/2/18/pubmed PY - 2012/5/24/medline SP - CD006378 EP - CD006378 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev VL - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The incidence of AD rises exponentially with age and its prevalence will increase significantly worldwide in the next few decades. Inflammatory processes have been suspected in the pathogenesis of the disease. OBJECTIVES: To review the efficacy and side effects of aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of AD, compared to placebo. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS: the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 12 April 2011 using the terms: aspirin OR "cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor" OR aceclofenac OR acemetacin OR betamethasone OR celecoxib OR cortisone OR deflazacort OR dexamethasone OR dexibruprofen OR dexketoprofen OR diclofenac sodium OR diflunisal OR diflusinal OR etodolac OR etoricoxib OR fenbufen OR fenoprofen OR flurbiprofen OR hydrocortisone OR ibuprofen OR indometacin OR indomethacin OR ketoprofen OR lumiracoxib OR mefenamic OR meloxicam OR methylprednisolone OR nabumetone OR naproxen OR nimesulide OR "anti-inflammatory" OR prednisone OR piroxicam OR sulindac OR tenoxicam OR tiaprofenic acid OR triamcinolone OR NSAIDS OR NSAID. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of a number of major healthcare databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS), numerous trial registries (including national, international and pharmacuetical registries) and grey literature sources. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials assessing the efficacy of aspirin, steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in AD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One author assessed risk of bias of each study and extracted data. A second author verified data selection. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified 604 potentially relevant studies. Of these, 14 studies (15 interventions) were RCTs and met our inclusion criteria. The numbers of participants were 352, 138 and 1745 for aspirin, steroid and NSAIDs groups, respectively. One selected study comprised two separate interventions. Interventions assessed in these studies were grouped into four categories: aspirin (three interventions), steroids (one intervention), traditional NSAIDs (six interventions), and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors (five interventions). All studies were evaluated for internal validity using a risk of bias assessment tool. The risk of bias was low for five studies, high for seven studies, and unclear for two studies.There was no significant improvement in cognitive decline for aspirin, steroid, traditional NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors. Compared to controls, patients receiving aspirin experienced more bleeding while patients receiving steroid experienced more hyperglycaemia, abnormal lab results and face edema. Patients receiving NSAIDs experienced nausea, vomiting, elevated creatinine, elevated LFT and hypertension. A trend towards higher death rates was observed among patients treated with NSAIDS compared with placebo and this was somewhat higher for selective COX-2 inhibitors than for traditional NSAIDs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on the studies carried out so far, the efficacy of aspirin, steroid and NSAIDs (traditional NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors) is not proven. Therefore, these drugs cannot be recommended for the treatment of AD. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22336816/full_citation L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006378.pub2 ER -