Treatment of motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease with deep brain stimulation.Lancet Neurol 2012; 11(5):429-42LN
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established procedure for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Several deep brain nuclei have been stimulated, producing a wide range of effects on the motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Long-term, high-quality evidence is available for stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus internus, both of which uniformly improve motor features, and for stimulation of the thalamic ventralis intermedius, which improves tremor. Short-term data are available for stimulation of other deep brain targets, such as the pedunculopontine nucleus and the centremedian/parafascicular thalamic complex. Some non-motor symptoms improve after DBS, partly because of motor benefit or reduction of drug treatment, and partly as a direct effect of stimulation. More evidence on the effects of DBS on non-motor symptoms is needed and specifically designed studies are warranted.