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Vitamin K nutrition, metabolism, and requirements: current concepts and future research.

Abstract

In 2001, the US Food and Nutrition Board concluded that there were insufficient data with which to establish a RDA for vitamin K, in large part because of a lack of robust endpoints that reflected adequacy of intake. Knowledge of the relative bioavailability of multiple vitamin K forms was also poor. Since then, stable isotope methodologies have been applied to the assessment of the bioavailability of the major dietary form of vitamin K in its free state and when incorporated into a plant matrix. There is a need for stable isotope studies with enhanced sensitivity to expand knowledge of the bioavailability, absorption, disposition, and metabolism of different molecular forms of vitamin K. Another area for future research stems from evidence that common polymorphisms or haplotypes in certain key genes implicated in vitamin K metabolism might affect nutritional requirements. Thus far, much of this evidence is indirect via effects on warfarin dose requirements. In terms of clinical endpoints, vitamin K deficiency in early infancy continues to be a leading cause of intracranial bleeding even in developed countries and the reasons for its higher prevalence in certain Asian countries has not been solved. There is universal consensus for the need for vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns, but the effectiveness of any vitamin K prophylactic regimen needs to be based on sound nutritional principles. In contrast, there is still a lack of suitable biomarkers or clinical endpoints that can be used to determine vitamin K requirements among adults.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Haemostasis Research Unit, Centre for Haemostasis and Thrombosis, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. martin.shearer@gstt.nhs.uk

    ,

    Source

    Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) 3:2 2012 Mar 01 pg 182-95

    MeSH

    Adult
    Biological Availability
    Bone and Bones
    Female
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant, Newborn
    Intestinal Absorption
    Liver
    Male
    Nutritional Requirements
    Vitamin K
    Vitamin K 1
    Vitamin K 2

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22516726

    Citation

    Shearer, Martin J., et al. "Vitamin K Nutrition, Metabolism, and Requirements: Current Concepts and Future Research." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 3, no. 2, 2012, pp. 182-95.
    Shearer MJ, Fu X, Booth SL. Vitamin K nutrition, metabolism, and requirements: current concepts and future research. Adv Nutr. 2012;3(2):182-95.
    Shearer, M. J., Fu, X., & Booth, S. L. (2012). Vitamin K nutrition, metabolism, and requirements: current concepts and future research. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 3(2), pp. 182-95. doi:10.3945/an.111.001800.
    Shearer MJ, Fu X, Booth SL. Vitamin K Nutrition, Metabolism, and Requirements: Current Concepts and Future Research. Adv Nutr. 2012 Mar 1;3(2):182-95. PubMed PMID: 22516726.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Vitamin K nutrition, metabolism, and requirements: current concepts and future research. AU - Shearer,Martin J, AU - Fu,Xueyan, AU - Booth,Sarah L, Y1 - 2012/03/01/ PY - 2012/4/21/entrez PY - 2012/4/21/pubmed PY - 2012/9/19/medline SP - 182 EP - 95 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 3 IS - 2 N2 - In 2001, the US Food and Nutrition Board concluded that there were insufficient data with which to establish a RDA for vitamin K, in large part because of a lack of robust endpoints that reflected adequacy of intake. Knowledge of the relative bioavailability of multiple vitamin K forms was also poor. Since then, stable isotope methodologies have been applied to the assessment of the bioavailability of the major dietary form of vitamin K in its free state and when incorporated into a plant matrix. There is a need for stable isotope studies with enhanced sensitivity to expand knowledge of the bioavailability, absorption, disposition, and metabolism of different molecular forms of vitamin K. Another area for future research stems from evidence that common polymorphisms or haplotypes in certain key genes implicated in vitamin K metabolism might affect nutritional requirements. Thus far, much of this evidence is indirect via effects on warfarin dose requirements. In terms of clinical endpoints, vitamin K deficiency in early infancy continues to be a leading cause of intracranial bleeding even in developed countries and the reasons for its higher prevalence in certain Asian countries has not been solved. There is universal consensus for the need for vitamin K prophylaxis in newborns, but the effectiveness of any vitamin K prophylactic regimen needs to be based on sound nutritional principles. In contrast, there is still a lack of suitable biomarkers or clinical endpoints that can be used to determine vitamin K requirements among adults. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22516726/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/an.111.001800 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -