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Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer.

Abstract

Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

    Source

    Gut and liver 6:2 2012 Apr pg 172-87

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22570746

    Citation

    Stinton, Laura M., and Eldon A. Shaffer. "Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer." Gut and Liver, vol. 6, no. 2, 2012, pp. 172-87.
    Stinton LM, Shaffer EA. Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut Liver. 2012;6(2):172-87.
    Stinton, L. M., & Shaffer, E. A. (2012). Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. Gut and Liver, 6(2), pp. 172-87. doi:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.2.172.
    Stinton LM, Shaffer EA. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer. Gut Liver. 2012;6(2):172-87. PubMed PMID: 22570746.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemiology of gallbladder disease: cholelithiasis and cancer. AU - Stinton,Laura M, AU - Shaffer,Eldon A, Y1 - 2012/04/17/ PY - 2011/10/06/received PY - 2011/10/20/accepted PY - 2012/5/10/entrez PY - 2012/5/10/pubmed PY - 2012/5/10/medline KW - Cholecystectomy KW - Gallbladder cancer KW - Gallbladder polyps KW - Gallstones SP - 172 EP - 87 JF - Gut and liver JO - Gut Liver VL - 6 IS - 2 N2 - Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. SN - 2005-1212 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22570746/full_citation L2 - http://www.gutnliver.org/journal/view.html?doi=10.5009/gnl.2012.6.2.172 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -