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Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain.

Abstract

Whole-grain and high fiber intakes are routinely recommended for prevention of vascular diseases; however, there are no comprehensive and quantitative assessments of available data in humans. The aim of this study was to systematically examine longitudinal studies investigating whole-grain and fiber intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), weight gain, and metabolic risk factors. We identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21 randomized-controlled trials (RCT) between 1966 and February 2012 by searching the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Elsevier Medical Database, and PubMed. Study characteristics, whole-grain and dietary fiber intakes, and risk estimates were extracted using a standardized protocol. Using random effects models, we found that compared with never/rare consumers of whole grains, those consuming 48-80 g whole grain/d (3-5 serving/d) had an ~26% lower risk of T2D [RR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.80)], ~21% lower risk of CVD [RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.85)], and consistently less weight gain during 8-13 y (1.27 vs 1.64 kg; P = 0.001). Among RCT, weighted mean differences in post-intervention circulating concentrations of fasting glucose and total and LDL-cholesterol comparing whole-grain intervention groups with controls indicated significantly lower concentrations after whole-grain interventions [differences in fasting glucose: -0.93 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.65, -0.21), total cholesterol: -0.83 mmol/L (-1.23, -0.42); and LDL-cholesterol: -0.82 mmol/L (-1.31, -0.33)]. [corrected] Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence to support beneficial effects of whole-grain intake on vascular disease prevention. Potential mechanisms responsible for whole grains' effects on metabolic intermediates require further investigation in large intervention trials.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    Program on Genomics and Nutrition, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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    Source

    The Journal of nutrition 142:7 2012 Jul pg 1304-13

    MeSH

    Blood Glucose
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fiber
    Edible Grain
    Energy Intake
    Food Handling
    Humans
    Obesity
    Risk
    Weight Gain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    22649266

    Citation

    Ye, Eva Qing, et al. "Greater Whole-grain Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Weight Gain." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 142, no. 7, 2012, pp. 1304-13.
    Ye EQ, Chacko SA, Chou EL, et al. Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. J Nutr. 2012;142(7):1304-13.
    Ye, E. Q., Chacko, S. A., Chou, E. L., Kugizaki, M., & Liu, S. (2012). Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. The Journal of Nutrition, 142(7), pp. 1304-13. doi:10.3945/jn.111.155325.
    Ye EQ, et al. Greater Whole-grain Intake Is Associated With Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and Weight Gain. J Nutr. 2012;142(7):1304-13. PubMed PMID: 22649266.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain. AU - Ye,Eva Qing, AU - Chacko,Sara A, AU - Chou,Elizabeth L, AU - Kugizaki,Matthew, AU - Liu,Simin, Y1 - 2012/05/30/ PY - 2012/6/1/entrez PY - 2012/6/1/pubmed PY - 2012/8/31/medline SP - 1304 EP - 13 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 142 IS - 7 N2 - Whole-grain and high fiber intakes are routinely recommended for prevention of vascular diseases; however, there are no comprehensive and quantitative assessments of available data in humans. The aim of this study was to systematically examine longitudinal studies investigating whole-grain and fiber intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), weight gain, and metabolic risk factors. We identified 45 prospective cohort studies and 21 randomized-controlled trials (RCT) between 1966 and February 2012 by searching the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, Elsevier Medical Database, and PubMed. Study characteristics, whole-grain and dietary fiber intakes, and risk estimates were extracted using a standardized protocol. Using random effects models, we found that compared with never/rare consumers of whole grains, those consuming 48-80 g whole grain/d (3-5 serving/d) had an ~26% lower risk of T2D [RR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.80)], ~21% lower risk of CVD [RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.85)], and consistently less weight gain during 8-13 y (1.27 vs 1.64 kg; P = 0.001). Among RCT, weighted mean differences in post-intervention circulating concentrations of fasting glucose and total and LDL-cholesterol comparing whole-grain intervention groups with controls indicated significantly lower concentrations after whole-grain interventions [differences in fasting glucose: -0.93 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.65, -0.21), total cholesterol: -0.83 mmol/L (-1.23, -0.42); and LDL-cholesterol: -0.82 mmol/L (-1.31, -0.33)]. [corrected] Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence to support beneficial effects of whole-grain intake on vascular disease prevention. Potential mechanisms responsible for whole grains' effects on metabolic intermediates require further investigation in large intervention trials. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/22649266/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/jn.111.155325 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -