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Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2013; 37(4):575-86AC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Alcohol consumption has multiple biochemical consequences. Only a few of these are useful as diagnostic markers, but many reflect potentially harmful or beneficial effects of alcohol. Average consumption of 2 to 4 drinks per day is associated with lower overall or cardiovascular mortality risk than either lower or higher intake. We have analyzed the dose-response relationships between reported alcohol consumption and 17 biomarkers, with emphasis on intake of up to 3 drinks per day.

METHODS

Biochemical tests were performed on serum from 8,396 study participants (3,750 men and 4,646 women, aged 51 ± 13 years, range 18 to 93) who had provided information on alcohol consumption in the week preceding blood collection.

RESULTS

Gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, urate, ferritin, and bilirubin showed little or no change with alcohol consumption below 2 to 3 drinks per day, but increased with higher intake. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin showed increasing results, and insulin showed decreasing results, across the entire range of alcohol use. Biphasic responses, where subjects reporting 1 to 2 drinks per day had lower results than those reporting either more or less alcohol use, occurred for triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and butyrylcholinesterase. Increasing alcohol use was associated with decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in younger women, but higher LDL-C in older men.

CONCLUSIONS

Some markers show threshold relationships with alcohol, others show continuous ones, and a third group show biphasic or U-shaped relationships. Overall, the biochemical sequelae of low-to-moderate alcohol use are consistent with the epidemiological evidence on morbidity and mortality.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. John.Whitfield@qimr.edu.auNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23134229

Citation

Whitfield, John B., et al. "Metabolic and Biochemical Effects of Low-to-moderate Alcohol Consumption." Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 37, no. 4, 2013, pp. 575-86.
Whitfield JB, Heath AC, Madden PA, et al. Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37(4):575-86.
Whitfield, J. B., Heath, A. C., Madden, P. A., Pergadia, M. L., Montgomery, G. W., & Martin, N. G. (2013). Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(4), pp. 575-86. doi:10.1111/acer.12015.
Whitfield JB, et al. Metabolic and Biochemical Effects of Low-to-moderate Alcohol Consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37(4):575-86. PubMed PMID: 23134229.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Metabolic and biochemical effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption. AU - Whitfield,John B, AU - Heath,Andrew C, AU - Madden,Pamela A F, AU - Pergadia,Michele L, AU - Montgomery,Grant W, AU - Martin,Nicholas G, Y1 - 2012/11/07/ PY - 2012/03/14/received PY - 2012/08/12/accepted PY - 2012/11/9/entrez PY - 2012/11/9/pubmed PY - 2013/12/29/medline SP - 575 EP - 86 JF - Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research JO - Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. VL - 37 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption has multiple biochemical consequences. Only a few of these are useful as diagnostic markers, but many reflect potentially harmful or beneficial effects of alcohol. Average consumption of 2 to 4 drinks per day is associated with lower overall or cardiovascular mortality risk than either lower or higher intake. We have analyzed the dose-response relationships between reported alcohol consumption and 17 biomarkers, with emphasis on intake of up to 3 drinks per day. METHODS: Biochemical tests were performed on serum from 8,396 study participants (3,750 men and 4,646 women, aged 51 ± 13 years, range 18 to 93) who had provided information on alcohol consumption in the week preceding blood collection. RESULTS: Gamma glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, urate, ferritin, and bilirubin showed little or no change with alcohol consumption below 2 to 3 drinks per day, but increased with higher intake. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and albumin showed increasing results, and insulin showed decreasing results, across the entire range of alcohol use. Biphasic responses, where subjects reporting 1 to 2 drinks per day had lower results than those reporting either more or less alcohol use, occurred for triglycerides, glucose, C-reactive protein, alkaline phosphatase, and butyrylcholinesterase. Increasing alcohol use was associated with decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in younger women, but higher LDL-C in older men. CONCLUSIONS: Some markers show threshold relationships with alcohol, others show continuous ones, and a third group show biphasic or U-shaped relationships. Overall, the biochemical sequelae of low-to-moderate alcohol use are consistent with the epidemiological evidence on morbidity and mortality. SN - 1530-0277 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23134229/full_citation L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.12015 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -