Vitamin D, calcium, and atherosclerotic risk: evidence from serum levels and supplementation studies.
Vitamin D and calcium have traditionally been viewed in relation to bone health. However, recent research has suggested relations between these nutrients and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Specifically, evidence from both observational studies and clinical trials suggests that vitamin D may be related to lower risk of CVD. The picture for calcium is more complex. Dietary intake of calcium may be associated with lower CVD risk, while calcium supplementation may elevate CVD risk. In this review, we summarize evidence of these relations, and comment on the recent Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations regarding use of vitamin D and calcium supplements.
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural