Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is evidence that reducing blood glucose concentrations, inducing weight loss, and improving the lipid profile reduces cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes.

OBJECTIVE

We assessed the effect of various diets on glycemic control, lipids, and weight loss.

DESIGN

We conducted searches of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to August 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with interventions that lasted ≥6 mo that compared low-carbohydrate, vegetarian, vegan, low-glycemic index (GI), high-fiber, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets with control diets including low-fat, high-GI, American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and low-protein diets.

RESULTS

A total of 20 RCTs were included (n = 3073 included in final analyses across 3460 randomly assigned individuals). The low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets all led to a greater improvement in glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin reductions of -0.12% (P = 0.04), -0.14% (P = 0.008), -0.47% (P < 0.00001), and -0.28% (P < 0.00001), respectively] compared with their respective control diets, with the largest effect size seen in the Mediterranean diet. Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss [-0.69 kg (P = 0.21) and -1.84 kg (P < 0.00001), respectively], with an increase in HDL seen in all diets except the high-protein diet.

CONCLUSION

Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management.

Links

  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, UK. olubukola.ajala@nhs.net

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Blood Glucose
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
    Diet, Fat-Restricted
    Diet, Mediterranean
    Diet, Protein-Restricted
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fiber
    Dietary Proteins
    Energy Intake
    Glycemic Index
    Humans
    Lipids
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Risk Factors
    Weight Loss

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23364002

    Citation

    Ajala, Olubukola, et al. "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 3, 2013, pp. 505-16.
    Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):505-16.
    Ajala, O., English, P., & Pinkney, J. (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(3), pp. 505-16. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.042457.
    Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):505-16. PubMed PMID: 23364002.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. AU - Ajala,Olubukola, AU - English,Patrick, AU - Pinkney,Jonathan, Y1 - 2013/01/30/ PY - 2013/2/1/entrez PY - 2013/2/1/pubmed PY - 2013/4/16/medline SP - 505 EP - 16 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 97 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is evidence that reducing blood glucose concentrations, inducing weight loss, and improving the lipid profile reduces cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of various diets on glycemic control, lipids, and weight loss. DESIGN: We conducted searches of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to August 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with interventions that lasted ≥6 mo that compared low-carbohydrate, vegetarian, vegan, low-glycemic index (GI), high-fiber, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets with control diets including low-fat, high-GI, American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and low-protein diets. RESULTS: A total of 20 RCTs were included (n = 3073 included in final analyses across 3460 randomly assigned individuals). The low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets all led to a greater improvement in glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin reductions of -0.12% (P = 0.04), -0.14% (P = 0.008), -0.47% (P < 0.00001), and -0.28% (P < 0.00001), respectively] compared with their respective control diets, with the largest effect size seen in the Mediterranean diet. Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss [-0.69 kg (P = 0.21) and -1.84 kg (P < 0.00001), respectively], with an increase in HDL seen in all diets except the high-protein diet. CONCLUSION: Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23364002/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.042457 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -