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Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes.
Am J Clin Nutr 2013; 97(3):505-16AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is evidence that reducing blood glucose concentrations, inducing weight loss, and improving the lipid profile reduces cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes.

OBJECTIVE

We assessed the effect of various diets on glycemic control, lipids, and weight loss.

DESIGN

We conducted searches of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to August 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with interventions that lasted ≥6 mo that compared low-carbohydrate, vegetarian, vegan, low-glycemic index (GI), high-fiber, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets with control diets including low-fat, high-GI, American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and low-protein diets.

RESULTS

A total of 20 RCTs were included (n = 3073 included in final analyses across 3460 randomly assigned individuals). The low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets all led to a greater improvement in glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin reductions of -0.12% (P = 0.04), -0.14% (P = 0.008), -0.47% (P < 0.00001), and -0.28% (P < 0.00001), respectively] compared with their respective control diets, with the largest effect size seen in the Mediterranean diet. Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss [-0.69 kg (P = 0.21) and -1.84 kg (P < 0.00001), respectively], with an increase in HDL seen in all diets except the high-protein diet.

CONCLUSION

Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, Plymouth, UK. olubukola.ajala@nhs.netNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

23364002

Citation

Ajala, Olubukola, et al. "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 3, 2013, pp. 505-16.
Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):505-16.
Ajala, O., English, P., & Pinkney, J. (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(3), pp. 505-16. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.042457.
Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):505-16. PubMed PMID: 23364002.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. AU - Ajala,Olubukola, AU - English,Patrick, AU - Pinkney,Jonathan, Y1 - 2013/01/30/ PY - 2013/2/1/entrez PY - 2013/2/1/pubmed PY - 2013/4/16/medline SP - 505 EP - 16 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 97 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is evidence that reducing blood glucose concentrations, inducing weight loss, and improving the lipid profile reduces cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of various diets on glycemic control, lipids, and weight loss. DESIGN: We conducted searches of PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar to August 2011. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with interventions that lasted ≥6 mo that compared low-carbohydrate, vegetarian, vegan, low-glycemic index (GI), high-fiber, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets with control diets including low-fat, high-GI, American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and low-protein diets. RESULTS: A total of 20 RCTs were included (n = 3073 included in final analyses across 3460 randomly assigned individuals). The low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets all led to a greater improvement in glycemic control [glycated hemoglobin reductions of -0.12% (P = 0.04), -0.14% (P = 0.008), -0.47% (P < 0.00001), and -0.28% (P < 0.00001), respectively] compared with their respective control diets, with the largest effect size seen in the Mediterranean diet. Low-carbohydrate and Mediterranean diets led to greater weight loss [-0.69 kg (P = 0.21) and -1.84 kg (P < 0.00001), respectively], with an increase in HDL seen in all diets except the high-protein diet. CONCLUSION: Low-carbohydrate, low-GI, Mediterranean, and high-protein diets are effective in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23364002/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.112.042457 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -