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Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The relation between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body weight remains controversial.

OBJECTIVE

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence in children and adults.

DESIGN

We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through March 2013 for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the SSB-weight relation. Separate meta-analyses were conducted in children and adults and for cohorts and RCTs by using random- and fixed-effects models.

RESULTS

Thirty-two original articles were included in our meta-analyses: 20 in children (15 cohort studies, n = 25,745; 5 trials, n = 2772) and 12 in adults (7 cohort studies, n = 174,252; 5 trials, n = 292). In cohort studies, one daily serving increment of SSBs was associated with a 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.10) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.07)-unit increase in BMI in children and 0.22 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 0.34 kg) and 0.12 kg (95% CI: 0.10, 0.14 kg) weight gain in adults over 1 y in random- and fixed-effects models, respectively. RCTs in children showed reductions in BMI gain when SSBs were reduced [random and fixed effects: -0.17 (95% CI: -0.39, 0.05) and -0.12 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.2)], whereas RCTs in adults showed increases in body weight when SSBs were added (random and fixed effects: 0.85 kg; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.20 kg). Sensitivity analyses of RCTs in children showed more pronounced benefits in preventing weight gain in SSB substitution trials (compared with school-based educational programs) and among overweight children (compared with normal-weight children).

CONCLUSION

Our systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and RCTs provides evidence that SSB consumption promotes weight gain in children and adults.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

    , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Beverages
    Bias
    Body Mass Index
    Child
    Child, Preschool
    Cohort Studies
    Dietary Sucrose
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Prospective Studies
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Weight Gain

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Review
    Systematic Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23966427

    Citation

    Malik, Vasanti S., et al. "Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in Children and Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 98, no. 4, 2013, pp. 1084-102.
    Malik VS, Pan A, Willett WC, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1084-102.
    Malik, V. S., Pan, A., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2013). Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 98(4), pp. 1084-102. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.058362.
    Malik VS, et al. Sugar-sweetened Beverages and Weight Gain in Children and Adults: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(4):1084-102. PubMed PMID: 23966427.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Malik,Vasanti S, AU - Pan,An, AU - Willett,Walter C, AU - Hu,Frank B, Y1 - 2013/08/21/ PY - 2013/8/23/entrez PY - 2013/8/24/pubmed PY - 2013/11/16/medline SP - 1084 EP - 102 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 98 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: The relation between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and body weight remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence in children and adults. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through March 2013 for prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the SSB-weight relation. Separate meta-analyses were conducted in children and adults and for cohorts and RCTs by using random- and fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Thirty-two original articles were included in our meta-analyses: 20 in children (15 cohort studies, n = 25,745; 5 trials, n = 2772) and 12 in adults (7 cohort studies, n = 174,252; 5 trials, n = 292). In cohort studies, one daily serving increment of SSBs was associated with a 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.10) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.07)-unit increase in BMI in children and 0.22 kg (95% CI: 0.09, 0.34 kg) and 0.12 kg (95% CI: 0.10, 0.14 kg) weight gain in adults over 1 y in random- and fixed-effects models, respectively. RCTs in children showed reductions in BMI gain when SSBs were reduced [random and fixed effects: -0.17 (95% CI: -0.39, 0.05) and -0.12 (95% CI: -0.22, -0.2)], whereas RCTs in adults showed increases in body weight when SSBs were added (random and fixed effects: 0.85 kg; 95% CI: 0.50, 1.20 kg). Sensitivity analyses of RCTs in children showed more pronounced benefits in preventing weight gain in SSB substitution trials (compared with school-based educational programs) and among overweight children (compared with normal-weight children). CONCLUSION: Our systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and RCTs provides evidence that SSB consumption promotes weight gain in children and adults. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23966427/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.113.058362 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -