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Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that can contribute to the development of disease.

OBJECTIVE

Our aim was to compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products.

DESIGN

We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects (mean age=59 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Data were collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and was adjusted for age, sex, and race. Body mass index and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using χ(2) tests and analysis of variance.

RESULTS

Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]).

CONCLUSIONS

Nutrient profiles varied markedly among dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences are of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases.

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    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Animals
    Body Mass Index
    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Dairy Products
    Diet
    Diet Surveys
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fiber
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Nutritive Value
    Plant Proteins
    Smoking
    Surveys and Questionnaires

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    23988511

    Citation

    Rizzo, Nico S., et al. "Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Dietary Patterns." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, vol. 113, no. 12, 2013, pp. 1610-9.
    Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, et al. Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113(12):1610-9.
    Rizzo, N. S., Jaceldo-Siegl, K., Sabate, J., & Fraser, G. E. (2013). Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(12), pp. 1610-9. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2013.06.349.
    Rizzo NS, et al. Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian and Nonvegetarian Dietary Patterns. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013;113(12):1610-9. PubMed PMID: 23988511.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutrient profiles of vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns. AU - Rizzo,Nico S, AU - Jaceldo-Siegl,Karen, AU - Sabate,Joan, AU - Fraser,Gary E, Y1 - 2013/08/27/ PY - 2012/02/15/received PY - 2013/06/11/accepted PY - 2013/8/31/entrez PY - 2013/8/31/pubmed PY - 2014/1/15/medline KW - Dietary pattern KW - Minerals KW - Nutrient profile KW - Vegetarian KW - Vitamins SP - 1610 EP - 9 JF - Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics JO - J Acad Nutr Diet VL - 113 IS - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Differences in nutrient profiles between vegetarian and nonvegetarian dietary patterns reflect nutritional differences that can contribute to the development of disease. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare nutrient intakes between dietary patterns characterized by consumption or exclusion of meat and dairy products. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 71,751 subjects (mean age=59 years) from the Adventist Health Study 2. Data were collected between 2002 and 2007. Participants completed a 204-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns compared were nonvegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, and strict vegetarian. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences in nutrient intakes by dietary patterns and was adjusted for age, sex, and race. Body mass index and other relevant demographic data were reported and compared by dietary pattern using χ(2) tests and analysis of variance. RESULTS: Many nutrient intakes varied significantly between dietary patterns. Nonvegetarians had the lowest intakes of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium compared with those following vegetarian dietary patterns, and the highest intakes of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The lower tails of some nutrient distributions in strict vegetarians suggested inadequate intakes by a portion of the subjects. Energy intake was similar among dietary patterns at close to 2,000 kcal/day, with the exception of semi-vegetarians, who had an intake of 1,707 kcal/day. Mean body mass index was highest in nonvegetarians (mean=28.7 [standard deviation=6.4]) and lowest in strict vegetarians (mean=24.0 [standard deviation=4.8]). CONCLUSIONS: Nutrient profiles varied markedly among dietary patterns that were defined by meat and dairy intakes. These differences are of interest in the etiology of obesity and chronic diseases. SN - 2212-2672 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/23988511/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2212-2672(13)01113-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -