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Oestrogen levels in serum and urine of premenopausal women eating low and high amounts of meat.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Based on the hypothesis that high-meat diets may increase breast cancer risk through hormonal pathways, the present analysis compared oestrogens in serum and urine by meat-eating status.

DESIGN

Intervention with repeated measures.

SETTING

Two randomized soya trials (BEAN1 and BEAN2) among premenopausal healthy women.

SUBJECTS

BEAN1 participants completed seven unannounced 24 h dietary recalls and donated five blood and urine samples over 2 years. BEAN2 women provided seven recalls and three samples over 13 months. Serum samples were analysed for oestrone (E₁) and oestradiol (E₂) using RIA. Nine oestrogen metabolites were measured in urine by LC-MS. Semi-vegetarians included women who reported consuming <30 g of red meat, poultry and fish daily, and pescatarians those who reported consuming <20 g of meat/poultry but >10 g of fish daily. All other women were classified as non-vegetarians. We applied mixed models to compute least-square means by vegetarian status adjusted for potential confounders.

RESULTS

The mean age of the 272 participants was 41·9 (SD 4·5) years. Serum E₁ (85 v. 100 pg/ml, P = 0·04) and E₂ (140 v. 154 pg/ml, P = 0·04) levels were lower in the thirty-seven semi-vegetarians than in the 235 non-vegetarians. The sum of the nine urinary oestrogen metabolites (183 v. 200 pmol/mg creatinine, P = 0·27) and the proportions of individual oestrogens and pathways did not differ by meat-eating status. Restricting the models to the samples collected during the luteal phase strengthened the associations.

CONCLUSIONS

Given the limitations of the study, the lower levels of serum oestrogens in semi-vegetarians than non-vegetarians need confirmation in larger populations.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    1University of Hawaii Cancer Center,701 Ilalo Street,Honolulu,HI 96813,USA.

    ,

    1University of Hawaii Cancer Center,701 Ilalo Street,Honolulu,HI 96813,USA.

    ,

    1University of Hawaii Cancer Center,701 Ilalo Street,Honolulu,HI 96813,USA.

    ,

    1University of Hawaii Cancer Center,701 Ilalo Street,Honolulu,HI 96813,USA.

    ,

    2University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.

    1University of Hawaii Cancer Center,701 Ilalo Street,Honolulu,HI 96813,USA.

    Source

    Public health nutrition 17:9 2014 Sep pg 2087-93

    MeSH

    Adult
    Breast Neoplasms
    Cross-Over Studies
    Estradiol
    Estrogens
    Estrone
    Female
    Hawaii
    Humans
    Luteal Phase
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Phytoestrogens
    Premenopause
    Risk Factors
    Soy Foods

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24050121

    Citation

    Harmon, Brook E., et al. "Oestrogen Levels in Serum and Urine of Premenopausal Women Eating Low and High Amounts of Meat." Public Health Nutrition, vol. 17, no. 9, 2014, pp. 2087-93.
    Harmon BE, Morimoto Y, Beckford F, et al. Oestrogen levels in serum and urine of premenopausal women eating low and high amounts of meat. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(9):2087-93.
    Harmon, B. E., Morimoto, Y., Beckford, F., Franke, A. A., Stanczyk, F. Z., & Maskarinec, G. (2014). Oestrogen levels in serum and urine of premenopausal women eating low and high amounts of meat. Public Health Nutrition, 17(9), pp. 2087-93. doi:10.1017/S1368980013002553.
    Harmon BE, et al. Oestrogen Levels in Serum and Urine of Premenopausal Women Eating Low and High Amounts of Meat. Public Health Nutr. 2014;17(9):2087-93. PubMed PMID: 24050121.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Oestrogen levels in serum and urine of premenopausal women eating low and high amounts of meat. AU - Harmon,Brook E, AU - Morimoto,Yukiko, AU - Beckford,Fanchon, AU - Franke,Adrian A, AU - Stanczyk,Frank Z, AU - Maskarinec,Gertraud, Y1 - 2013/09/19/ PY - 2013/9/21/entrez PY - 2013/9/21/pubmed PY - 2015/6/3/medline SP - 2087 EP - 93 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 17 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Based on the hypothesis that high-meat diets may increase breast cancer risk through hormonal pathways, the present analysis compared oestrogens in serum and urine by meat-eating status. DESIGN: Intervention with repeated measures. SETTING: Two randomized soya trials (BEAN1 and BEAN2) among premenopausal healthy women. SUBJECTS: BEAN1 participants completed seven unannounced 24 h dietary recalls and donated five blood and urine samples over 2 years. BEAN2 women provided seven recalls and three samples over 13 months. Serum samples were analysed for oestrone (E₁) and oestradiol (E₂) using RIA. Nine oestrogen metabolites were measured in urine by LC-MS. Semi-vegetarians included women who reported consuming <30 g of red meat, poultry and fish daily, and pescatarians those who reported consuming <20 g of meat/poultry but >10 g of fish daily. All other women were classified as non-vegetarians. We applied mixed models to compute least-square means by vegetarian status adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The mean age of the 272 participants was 41·9 (SD 4·5) years. Serum E₁ (85 v. 100 pg/ml, P = 0·04) and E₂ (140 v. 154 pg/ml, P = 0·04) levels were lower in the thirty-seven semi-vegetarians than in the 235 non-vegetarians. The sum of the nine urinary oestrogen metabolites (183 v. 200 pmol/mg creatinine, P = 0·27) and the proportions of individual oestrogens and pathways did not differ by meat-eating status. Restricting the models to the samples collected during the luteal phase strengthened the associations. CONCLUSIONS: Given the limitations of the study, the lower levels of serum oestrogens in semi-vegetarians than non-vegetarians need confirmation in larger populations. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24050121/full_citation L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980013002553/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -