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The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea.
Epidemiol Rev 2014; 36:104-13ER

Abstract

Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual complaint with a major impact on women's quality of life, work productivity, and health-care utilization. A comprehensive review was performed on longitudinal or case-control or cross-sectional studies with large community-based samples to accurately determine the prevalence and/or incidence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Fifteen primary studies, published between 2002 and 2011, met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea varies between 16% and 91% in women of reproductive age, with severe pain in 2%-29% of the women studied. Women's age, parity, and use of oral contraceptives were inversely associated with dysmenorrhea, and high stress increased the risk of dysmenorrhea. The effect sizes were generally modest to moderate, with odds ratios varying between 1 and 4. Family history of dysmenorrhea strongly increased its risk, with odds ratios between 3.8 and 20.7. Inconclusive evidence was found for modifiable factors such as cigarette smoking, diet, obesity, depression, and abuse. Dysmenorrhea is a significant symptom for a large proportion of women of reproductive age; however, severe pain limiting daily activities is less common. This review confirms that dysmenorrhea improves with increased age, parity, and use of oral contraceptives and is positively associated with stress and family history of dysmenorrhea.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OCP, oral contraceptive pill.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24284871

Citation

Ju, Hong, et al. "The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dysmenorrhea." Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 36, 2014, pp. 104-13.
Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiol Rev. 2014;36:104-13.
Ju, H., Jones, M., & Mishra, G. (2014). The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Epidemiologic Reviews, 36, pp. 104-13. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxt009.
Ju H, Jones M, Mishra G. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dysmenorrhea. Epidemiol Rev. 2014;36:104-13. PubMed PMID: 24284871.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The prevalence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. AU - Ju,Hong, AU - Jones,Mark, AU - Mishra,Gita, Y1 - 2013/11/26/ PY - 2013/11/29/entrez PY - 2013/11/29/pubmed PY - 2014/6/28/medline KW - dysmenorrhea KW - incidence KW - menstrual pain KW - natural history KW - painful menstruation KW - prevalence KW - risk factors SP - 104 EP - 13 JF - Epidemiologic reviews JO - Epidemiol Rev VL - 36 N2 - Dysmenorrhea is a common menstrual complaint with a major impact on women's quality of life, work productivity, and health-care utilization. A comprehensive review was performed on longitudinal or case-control or cross-sectional studies with large community-based samples to accurately determine the prevalence and/or incidence and risk factors of dysmenorrhea. Fifteen primary studies, published between 2002 and 2011, met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea varies between 16% and 91% in women of reproductive age, with severe pain in 2%-29% of the women studied. Women's age, parity, and use of oral contraceptives were inversely associated with dysmenorrhea, and high stress increased the risk of dysmenorrhea. The effect sizes were generally modest to moderate, with odds ratios varying between 1 and 4. Family history of dysmenorrhea strongly increased its risk, with odds ratios between 3.8 and 20.7. Inconclusive evidence was found for modifiable factors such as cigarette smoking, diet, obesity, depression, and abuse. Dysmenorrhea is a significant symptom for a large proportion of women of reproductive age; however, severe pain limiting daily activities is less common. This review confirms that dysmenorrhea improves with increased age, parity, and use of oral contraceptives and is positively associated with stress and family history of dysmenorrhea. SN - 1478-6729 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24284871/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/epirev/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/epirev/mxt009 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -