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Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome.
Nature 2014; 505(7484):559-63Nat

Abstract

Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1] FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [2] Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA [3] Molecular Genetics & Microbiology and Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences and the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences and the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences and the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, USA.Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

24336217

Citation

David, Lawrence A., et al. "Diet Rapidly and Reproducibly Alters the Human Gut Microbiome." Nature, vol. 505, no. 7484, 2014, pp. 559-63.
David LA, Maurice CF, Carmody RN, et al. Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2014;505(7484):559-63.
David, L. A., Maurice, C. F., Carmody, R. N., Gootenberg, D. B., Button, J. E., Wolfe, B. E., ... Turnbaugh, P. J. (2014). Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature, 505(7484), pp. 559-63. doi:10.1038/nature12820.
David LA, et al. Diet Rapidly and Reproducibly Alters the Human Gut Microbiome. Nature. 2014 Jan 23;505(7484):559-63. PubMed PMID: 24336217.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. AU - David,Lawrence A, AU - Maurice,Corinne F, AU - Carmody,Rachel N, AU - Gootenberg,David B, AU - Button,Julie E, AU - Wolfe,Benjamin E, AU - Ling,Alisha V, AU - Devlin,A Sloan, AU - Varma,Yug, AU - Fischbach,Michael A, AU - Biddinger,Sudha B, AU - Dutton,Rachel J, AU - Turnbaugh,Peter J, Y1 - 2013/12/11/ PY - 2013/04/18/received PY - 2013/10/29/accepted PY - 2013/12/17/entrez PY - 2013/12/18/pubmed PY - 2014/2/5/medline SP - 559 EP - 63 JF - Nature JO - Nature VL - 505 IS - 7484 N2 - Long-term dietary intake influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut, but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals, reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease. In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles. SN - 1476-4687 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24336217/full_citation L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12820 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -