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Consequences of excess iodine.

Abstract

Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard (111D), Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA.

    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 88 East Newton Street, Evans 201, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

    Source

    Nature reviews. Endocrinology 10:3 2014 Mar pg 136-42

    MeSH

    Humans
    Hyperthyroidism
    Hypothyroidism
    Iodine
    Thyroid Gland

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24342882

    Citation

    Leung, Angela M., and Lewis E. Braverman. "Consequences of Excess Iodine." Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, vol. 10, no. 3, 2014, pp. 136-42.
    Leung AM, Braverman LE. Consequences of excess iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(3):136-42.
    Leung, A. M., & Braverman, L. E. (2014). Consequences of excess iodine. Nature Reviews. Endocrinology, 10(3), pp. 136-42. doi:10.1038/nrendo.2013.251.
    Leung AM, Braverman LE. Consequences of Excess Iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014;10(3):136-42. PubMed PMID: 24342882.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Consequences of excess iodine. AU - Leung,Angela M, AU - Braverman,Lewis E, Y1 - 2013/12/17/ PY - 2013/12/18/entrez PY - 2013/12/18/pubmed PY - 2014/8/12/medline SP - 136 EP - 42 JF - Nature reviews. Endocrinology JO - Nat Rev Endocrinol VL - 10 IS - 3 N2 - Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent. SN - 1759-5037 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24342882/full_citation L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2013.251 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -