Consequences of excess iodine.
Iodine is a micronutrient that is essential for the production of thyroid hormones. The primary source of iodine is the diet via consumption of foods that have been fortified with iodine, including salt, dairy products and bread, or that are naturally abundant in the micronutrient, such as seafood. Recommended daily iodine intake is 150 µg in adults who are not pregnant or lactating. Ingestion of iodine or exposure above this threshold is generally well-tolerated. However, in certain susceptible individuals, including those with pre-existing thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses and neonates, or patients with other risk factors, the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction might be increased. Hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism as a result of supraphysiologic iodine exposure might be either subclinical or overt, and the source of the excess iodine might not be readily apparent.
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard (111D), Los Angeles, CA 90073, USA.
Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 88 East Newton Street, Evans 201, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural