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Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts.

Abstract

Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA. ltle@llu.edu.

    Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, CA 92350, USA. jsabate@llu.edu.

    Source

    Nutrients 6:6 2014 May 27 pg 2131-47

    MeSH

    Adult
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet, Vegetarian
    Female
    Heart Diseases
    Humans
    Hypertension
    Male
    Neoplasms
    Obesity
    Protestantism

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24871675

    Citation

    Le, Lap Tai, and Joan Sabaté. "Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings From the Adventist Cohorts." Nutrients, vol. 6, no. 6, 2014, pp. 2131-47.
    Le LT, Sabaté J. Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts. Nutrients. 2014;6(6):2131-47.
    Le, L. T., & Sabaté, J. (2014). Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts. Nutrients, 6(6), pp. 2131-47. doi:10.3390/nu6062131.
    Le LT, Sabaté J. Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings From the Adventist Cohorts. Nutrients. 2014 May 27;6(6):2131-47. PubMed PMID: 24871675.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Beyond meatless, the health effects of vegan diets: findings from the Adventist cohorts. AU - Le,Lap Tai, AU - Sabaté,Joan, Y1 - 2014/05/27/ PY - 2014/04/03/received PY - 2014/05/17/revised PY - 2014/05/20/accepted PY - 2014/5/30/entrez PY - 2014/5/30/pubmed PY - 2015/1/22/medline SP - 2131 EP - 47 JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 6 IS - 6 N2 - Vegetarians, those who avoid meat, and vegans, additionally avoiding dairy and eggs, represent 5% and 2%, respectively, of the US population. The aim of this review is to assess the effects of vegetarian diets, particularly strict vegetarian diets (i.e., vegans) on health and disease outcomes. We summarized available evidence from three prospective cohorts of Adventists in North America: Adventist Mortality Study, Adventist Health Study, and Adventist Health Study-2. Non-vegetarian diets were compared to vegetarian dietary patterns (i.e., vegan and lacto-ovo-vegetarian) on selected health outcomes. Vegetarian diets confer protection against cardiovascular diseases, cardiometabolic risk factors, some cancers and total mortality. Compared to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets, vegan diets seem to offer additional protection for obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular mortality. Males experience greater health benefits than females. Limited prospective data is available on vegetarian diets and body weight change. Large randomized intervention trials on the effects of vegetarian diet patterns on neurological and cognitive functions, obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular outcomes are warranted to make meaningful recommendations. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24871675/full_citation L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu6062131 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -