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Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants.

OBJECTIVES

Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers.

METHODS

We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV.

RESULTS

In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS

In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723.

Links

Authors

, , , , , , , , , , ,

Source

PloS one 9:6 2014 pg e98671

Pub Type(s)

JOURNAL ARTICLE

Language

ENG

PubMed ID

24910991

Citation

TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of Broccoli Sprouts on Nasal Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Virus in Smokers: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study. A1 - Noah,Terry L, AU - Zhang,Hongtao, AU - Zhou,Haibo, AU - Glista-Baker,Ellen, AU - Müller,Loretta, AU - Bauer,Rebecca N, AU - Meyer,Megan, AU - Murphy,Paula C, AU - Jones,Shannon, AU - Letang,Blanche, AU - Robinette,Carole, AU - Jaspers,Ilona, Y1 - 2014/6/9/ PY - 2014///ecollection PY - 2014/3/13/received PY - 2014/4/30/accepted PY - 2014/6/9/epublish PY - 2014/6/10/entrez SP - e98671 EP - e98671 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 9 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Smokers have increased susceptibility and altered innate host defense responses to influenza virus infection. Broccoli sprouts are a source of the Nrf2 activating agentsulforaphane, and short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates (BSH) has been shown to reduce nasal inflammatory responses to oxidant pollutants. OBJECTIVES: Assess the effects of BSH on nasal cytokines, virus replication, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effects of BSH on serially sampled nasal lavage fluid (NLF) cytokines, viral sequence quantity, and Nrf2-dependent enzyme expression in NLF cells and biopsied epithelium. Healthy young adult smokers and nonsmokers ingested BSH or placebo (alfalfa sprout homogenate) for 4 days, designated Days -1, 0, 1, 2. On Day 0 they received standard vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) intranasally. Nasal lavage fluids and nasal biopsies were collected serially to assess response to LAIV. RESULTS: In area under curve analyses, post-LAIV IL-6 responses (P = 0.03) and influenza sequences (P = 0.01) were significantly reduced in NLF from BSH-treated smokers, whileNAD(P)H: quinoneoxidoreductasein NLF cells was significantly increased. In nonsmokers, a similar trend for reduction in virus quantity with BSH did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: In smokers, short term ingestion of broccoli sprout homogenates appears to significantly reduce some virus-induced markers of inflammation, as well as reducing virus quantity. Nutritional antioxidant interventions have promise as a safe, low-cost strategy for reducing influenza risk among smokers and other at risk populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01269723. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24910991/full_citation ER -