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Dietary fat composition and dementia risk.

Abstract

This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Section of Nutrition and Nutritional Epidemiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: Martha_Morris@rush.edu.

    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

    Source

    Neurobiology of aging 35 Suppl 2: 2014 Sep pg S59-64

    MeSH

    Alzheimer Disease
    Animals
    Apolipoprotein E4
    Blood-Brain Barrier
    Brain
    Cholesterol
    Dementia
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Fatty Acids
    Humans
    Risk
    Trans Fatty Acids

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    24970568

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary fat composition and dementia risk. AU - Morris,Martha Clare, AU - Tangney,Christine C, Y1 - 2014/05/15/ PY - 2013/11/06/received PY - 2014/02/27/revised PY - 2014/03/15/accepted PY - 2014/6/28/entrez PY - 2014/6/28/pubmed PY - 2015/1/21/medline KW - Alzheimer's disease KW - Cognitive decline KW - Dementia KW - Diet KW - Fatty acids KW - Monounsaturated fats KW - Polyunsaturated fats KW - Saturated fats KW - Trans fats SP - S59 EP - 64 JF - Neurobiology of aging JO - Neurobiol. Aging VL - 35 Suppl 2 N2 - This is a qualitative review of the evidence linking dietary fat composition to the risk of developing dementia. The review considers laboratory and animal studies that identify underlying mechanisms as well as prospective epidemiologic studies linking biochemical or dietary fatty acids to cognitive decline or incident dementia. Several lines of evidence provide support for the hypothesis that high saturated or trans fatty acids increase the risk of dementia and high polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids decrease risk. Dietary fat composition is an important factor in blood-brain barrier function and the blood cholesterol profile. Cholesterol and blood-brain barrier function are involved in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease, and the primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, apolipoprotein E-ε4, is involved in cholesterol transport. The epidemiologic literature is seemingly inconsistent on this topic, but many studies are difficult to interpret because of analytical techniques that ignored negative confounding by other fatty acids, which likely resulted in null findings. The studies that appropriately adjust for confounding by other fats support the dietary fat composition hypothesis. SN - 1558-1497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/24970568/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0197-4580(14)00354-6 ER -