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Omega-3 fatty acids intake and risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

We systematically reviewed the association of omega-3 fatty acids intake with the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, as evidence from previous studies suggests inconsistent results.

METHODS

We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science databases up to June 2013. Prospective cohort studies reporting on associations of dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or fish with the incidence of dementia and AD were eligible.

RESULTS

Comparing the highest to lowest category of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intake and fish intake, the pooled relative risks (RRs) for dementia were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85-1.10) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-1.01), respectively. Evidence synthesis for AD risk did not show a statistically significant association with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intake (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.74-1.08). However, a higher intake of fish was associated with a 36% (95% CI 8-56%) lower risk of AD. Dose-response meta-analysis showed that an increment of 100g per week of fish intake was associated with an 11% lower risk of AD (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.79-0.99). There was limited evidence of heterogeneity across studies or within subgroups.

CONCLUSION

A higher intake of fish was associated with a lower risk of AD. However, there was no statistical evidence for similar inverse association between long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intake and risk of dementia or AD, nor was there inverse association between fish intake and risk of dementia.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Research and Technology Service Center, 302 Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.

    ,

    Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

    ,

    International Cooperation Laboratory on Signal Transduction, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

    ,

    Research and Technology Service Center, 302 Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China.

    ,

    Research and Technology Service Center, 302 Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China. Electronic address: houj302@163.com.

    Research and Technology Service Center, 302 Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China. Electronic address: maopy302@163.com.

    Source

    MeSH

    Alzheimer Disease
    Animals
    Dementia
    Diet
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Fishes
    Humans
    Risk

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Meta-Analysis
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25446949

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Omega-3 fatty acids intake and risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis. AU - Wu,Shunquan, AU - Ding,Yingying, AU - Wu,Fuquan, AU - Li,Ruisheng, AU - Hou,Jun, AU - Mao,Panyong, Y1 - 2014/11/21/ PY - 2014/8/18/received PY - 2014/10/14/revised PY - 2014/11/13/accepted PY - 2014/11/21/aheadofprint PY - 2014/12/3/entrez PY - 2014/12/3/pubmed PY - 2015/8/11/medline KW - Alzheimer's disease KW - Dementia KW - Omega-3 fatty acids SP - 1 EP - 9 JF - Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews JO - Neurosci Biobehav Rev VL - 48 N2 - BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed the association of omega-3 fatty acids intake with the incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, as evidence from previous studies suggests inconsistent results. METHODS: We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EmBase, and Web of Science databases up to June 2013. Prospective cohort studies reporting on associations of dietary intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or fish with the incidence of dementia and AD were eligible. RESULTS: Comparing the highest to lowest category of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intake and fish intake, the pooled relative risks (RRs) for dementia were 0.97 (95% CI 0.85-1.10) and 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-1.01), respectively. Evidence synthesis for AD risk did not show a statistically significant association with long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intake (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.74-1.08). However, a higher intake of fish was associated with a 36% (95% CI 8-56%) lower risk of AD. Dose-response meta-analysis showed that an increment of 100g per week of fish intake was associated with an 11% lower risk of AD (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.79-0.99). There was limited evidence of heterogeneity across studies or within subgroups. CONCLUSION: A higher intake of fish was associated with a lower risk of AD. However, there was no statistical evidence for similar inverse association between long-chain omega-3 fatty acids intake and risk of dementia or AD, nor was there inverse association between fish intake and risk of dementia. SN - 1873-7528 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25446949/full_citation L2 - http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-7634(14)00293-0 ER -