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Dietary patterns, cognitive decline, and dementia: a systematic review.

Abstract

Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands ondine.vanderest@wur.nl.

    ,

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

    ,

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

    Source

    MeSH

    Alzheimer Disease
    Cognition
    Cognition Disorders
    Dementia
    Diet
    Diet, Mediterranean
    Feeding Behavior
    Humans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25770254

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary patterns, cognitive decline, and dementia: a systematic review. AU - van de Rest,Ondine, AU - Berendsen,Agnes Am, AU - Haveman-Nies,Annemien, AU - de Groot,Lisette Cpgm, Y1 - 2015/03/13/ PY - 2015/3/15/entrez PY - 2015/3/15/pubmed PY - 2015/12/15/medline KW - Mediterranean diet KW - cognitive decline KW - dementia KW - dietary pattern KW - healthy diet SP - 154 EP - 68 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 6 IS - 2 N2 - Nutrition is an important modifiable risk factor that plays a role in the strategy to prevent or delay the onset of dementia. Research on nutritional effects has until now mainly focused on the role of individual nutrients and bioactive components. However, the evidence for combined effects, such as multinutrient approaches, or a healthy dietary pattern, such as the Mediterranean diet, is growing. These approaches incorporate the complexity of the diet and possible interaction and synergy between nutrients. Over the past few years, dietary patterns have increasingly been investigated to better understand the link between diet, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this systematic review we provide an overview of the literature on human studies up to May 2014 that examined the role of dietary patterns (derived both a priori as well as a posteriori) in relation to cognitive decline or dementia. The results suggest that better adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with less cognitive decline, dementia, or Alzheimer disease, as shown by 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies, 6 of 12 longitudinal studies, 1 trial, and 3 meta-analyses. Other healthy dietary patterns, derived both a priori (e.g., Healthy Diet Indicator, Healthy Eating Index, and Program National Nutrition Santé guideline score) and a posteriori (e.g., factor analysis, cluster analysis, and reduced rank regression), were shown to be associated with reduced cognitive decline and/or a reduced risk of dementia as shown by all 6 cross-sectional studies and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. More conclusive evidence is needed to reach more targeted and detailed guidelines to prevent or postpone cognitive decline. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25770254/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/an.114.007617 ER -