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Selenium and selenium-dependent antioxidants in chronic kidney disease.

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a key role in numerous disease processes including chronic kidney disease (CKD). In general, oxygen metabolism leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dangerous to cells. Although enzymes and low-molecular-weight antioxidants protect against ROS, chronic imbalances of formation and elimination can eventually overwhelm endogenous defenses leading to deleterious consequences. In CKD, glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) play an important role in ROS metabolism. Plasma GSH-Px is synthesized in the kidney and requires selenium (Se) as a cofactor. Interestingly, Se and plasma GSH-Px are both significantly reduced in CKD, especially for those patients on hemodialysis. Supplementation of Se in these patients results in modest increases of GSH-Px, presumably from residual renal tissue. Kidney transplantation rapidly restores plasma GSH-Px. In this chapter, the relevance of these findings to CKD is explored with emphasis on renal disease processes and impact on attendant disorders including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Department of Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland; College of Health Sciences, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Electronic address: bronzach1@gmail.com.

    Source

    MeSH

    Antioxidants
    Dietary Supplements
    Glutathione Peroxidase
    Humans
    Reactive Oxygen Species
    Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
    Selenium

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    25858871

    Citation

    TY - JOUR T1 - Selenium and selenium-dependent antioxidants in chronic kidney disease. A1 - Zachara,Bronislaw A, Y1 - 2015/01/07/ PY - 2015/1/7/aheadofprint PY - 2015/4/11/entrez PY - 2015/4/11/pubmed PY - 2015/6/5/medline KW - Antioxidants KW - Chronic kidney disease KW - Glutathione peroxidases KW - Hemodialysis KW - Selenium SP - 131 EP - 51 JF - Advances in clinical chemistry JO - Adv Clin Chem VL - 68 N2 - Oxidative stress plays a key role in numerous disease processes including chronic kidney disease (CKD). In general, oxygen metabolism leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dangerous to cells. Although enzymes and low-molecular-weight antioxidants protect against ROS, chronic imbalances of formation and elimination can eventually overwhelm endogenous defenses leading to deleterious consequences. In CKD, glutathione peroxidases (GSH-Px) play an important role in ROS metabolism. Plasma GSH-Px is synthesized in the kidney and requires selenium (Se) as a cofactor. Interestingly, Se and plasma GSH-Px are both significantly reduced in CKD, especially for those patients on hemodialysis. Supplementation of Se in these patients results in modest increases of GSH-Px, presumably from residual renal tissue. Kidney transplantation rapidly restores plasma GSH-Px. In this chapter, the relevance of these findings to CKD is explored with emphasis on renal disease processes and impact on attendant disorders including cancer and cardiovascular disease. SN - 0065-2423 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/25858871/full_citation L2 - http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0065-2423(14)00037-7 ER -