Vegetable Oil Intake and Breast Cancer Risk: a Meta-analysis.Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015; 16(12):5125-35AP
Total fat intake may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, and fish oil has been suggested as a protection factor to breast cancer. But the effect of vegetable oils is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association with high vegetable oils consumption and breast cancer risk, and evaluated their dose-response relationship.
We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and CNKI updated to December 2014, and identified all observational studies providing quantitative estimates between breast cancer risk and different vegetable oils consumption. Fixed or random effect models were used to estimate summary odds ratios for the highest vs. lowest intake, and dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline model and generalized least-squares trend (GLST) model.
Five prospective cohort studies and 11 retrospective case-control studies, involving 11,161 breast cancer events from more than 150,000 females, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with the lowest vegetable oils consumption, higher intake didn't increased the risk of breast cancer with pooled OR of 0.88 (95% CIs:0.77-1.01), and the result from dose- response analyses didn't show a significant positive or negative trend on the breast cancer risk for each 10 g vegetable oil/day increment (OR=0.98, 95% CIs: 0.95-1.01). In the subgroup analyses, the oils might impact on females with different strata of BMI. Higher olive oil intake showed a protective effect against breast cancer with OR of 0.74 (95% CIs: 0.60-0.92), which was not significant among the three cohort studies.
This meta-analyses suggested that higher intake of vegetable oils is not associated with the higher risk of breast cancer. Olive oil might be a protective factor for the cancer occurrence among case-control studies and from the whole. Recall bias and imbalance in study location and vegetable oils subtypes shouldn't be ignored. More prospective cohort studies are required to confirm the interaction of the impact of vegetable oils on different population and various cancer characteristic, and further investigate the relationship between different subtype oils and breast cancer.