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Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

Abstract

Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address: kevinh@niddk.nih.gov.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    Clinical Center Nutrition Department, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

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    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, UK.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

    Source

    Cell metabolism 22:3 2015 Sep 01 pg 427-36

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Adult
    Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted
    Diet, Fat-Restricted
    Diet, Reducing
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fats
    Energy Intake
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Models, Biological
    Obesity
    Oxidation-Reduction

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26278052

    Citation

    Hall, Kevin D., et al. "Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss Than Carbohydrate Restriction in People With Obesity." Cell Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 3, 2015, pp. 427-36.
    Hall KD, Bemis T, Brychta R, et al. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. Cell Metab. 2015;22(3):427-36.
    Hall, K. D., Bemis, T., Brychta, R., Chen, K. Y., Courville, A., Crayner, E. J., ... Yannai, L. (2015). Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. Cell Metabolism, 22(3), pp. 427-36. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.07.021.
    Hall KD, et al. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss Than Carbohydrate Restriction in People With Obesity. Cell Metab. 2015 Sep 1;22(3):427-36. PubMed PMID: 26278052.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity. AU - Hall,Kevin D, AU - Bemis,Thomas, AU - Brychta,Robert, AU - Chen,Kong Y, AU - Courville,Amber, AU - Crayner,Emma J, AU - Goodwin,Stephanie, AU - Guo,Juen, AU - Howard,Lilian, AU - Knuth,Nicolas D, AU - Miller,Bernard V,3rd AU - Prado,Carla M, AU - Siervo,Mario, AU - Skarulis,Monica C, AU - Walter,Mary, AU - Walter,Peter J, AU - Yannai,Laura, Y1 - 2015/08/13/ PY - 2015/05/20/received PY - 2015/07/06/revised PY - 2015/07/23/accepted PY - 2015/8/18/entrez PY - 2015/8/19/pubmed PY - 2016/6/10/medline SP - 427 EP - 36 JF - Cell metabolism JO - Cell Metab. VL - 22 IS - 3 N2 - Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. SN - 1932-7420 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26278052/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1550-4131(15)00350-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -