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Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016; 55(6):957-67R

Abstract

HCQ is widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, particularly lupus and RA. It is generally well tolerated, but retinopathy is a concern. Retinopathy is rare, but is sight threatening, generally irreversible and may progress even after cessation of therapy. Damage may be subclinical. Although a number of risk factors have been proposed (such as duration of therapy and cumulative dose), the many exceptions (e.g. retinopathy on low-dose HCQ, or no retinopathy after a very large cumulative dose of HCQ) highlight our limited understanding of the disease process. Novel technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) may provide the earliest structural and functional evidence of toxicity in these stages. Along with the well-established technique of central visual field testing (10-2 visual fields), these modalities are increasingly being used as part of screening programmes. The ideal single test with high sensitivity and high specificity for HCQ retinopathy has still not been achieved. Screening for HCQ retinopathy remains an area of considerable debate, including issues of when, who and how to screen. Commonly accepted risk factors include receiving >6.5 mg/kg/day or a cumulative dose of >1000 g of HCQ, being on treatment for >5 years, having renal or liver dysfunction, having pre-existing retinopathy and being elderly. HCQ continues to be a valuable drug in treating rheumatic disease, but clinicians need to be aware of the associated risks and to have arrangements in place that would enable early detection of toxicity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Putrajaya Hospital, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Rheumatology Research Group, School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham.Ophthalmology Department, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Centre for Translational Inflammation Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham and.Rheumatology Research Group, School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham.Rheumatology Research Group, School of Immunity and Infection, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Department of Rheumatology, City Hospital, Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK p.c.gordon@bham.ac.uk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26428520

Citation

Ding, Hui Jen, et al. "Hydroxychloroquine-related Retinal Toxicity." Rheumatology (Oxford, England), vol. 55, no. 6, 2016, pp. 957-67.
Ding HJ, Denniston AK, Rao VK, et al. Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55(6):957-67.
Ding, H. J., Denniston, A. K., Rao, V. K., & Gordon, C. (2016). Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity. Rheumatology (Oxford, England), 55(6), pp. 957-67. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kev357.
Ding HJ, et al. Hydroxychloroquine-related Retinal Toxicity. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55(6):957-67. PubMed PMID: 26428520.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hydroxychloroquine-related retinal toxicity. AU - Ding,Hui Jen, AU - Denniston,Alastair K, AU - Rao,Vijay K, AU - Gordon,Caroline, Y1 - 2015/10/01/ PY - 2014/11/07/received PY - 2015/10/3/entrez PY - 2015/10/3/pubmed PY - 2017/6/13/medline KW - hydroxychloroquine KW - ocular safety KW - retinal toxicity KW - risks KW - screening modalities KW - systemic lupus erythematosus SP - 957 EP - 67 JF - Rheumatology (Oxford, England) JO - Rheumatology (Oxford) VL - 55 IS - 6 N2 - HCQ is widely used for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, particularly lupus and RA. It is generally well tolerated, but retinopathy is a concern. Retinopathy is rare, but is sight threatening, generally irreversible and may progress even after cessation of therapy. Damage may be subclinical. Although a number of risk factors have been proposed (such as duration of therapy and cumulative dose), the many exceptions (e.g. retinopathy on low-dose HCQ, or no retinopathy after a very large cumulative dose of HCQ) highlight our limited understanding of the disease process. Novel technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) may provide the earliest structural and functional evidence of toxicity in these stages. Along with the well-established technique of central visual field testing (10-2 visual fields), these modalities are increasingly being used as part of screening programmes. The ideal single test with high sensitivity and high specificity for HCQ retinopathy has still not been achieved. Screening for HCQ retinopathy remains an area of considerable debate, including issues of when, who and how to screen. Commonly accepted risk factors include receiving >6.5 mg/kg/day or a cumulative dose of >1000 g of HCQ, being on treatment for >5 years, having renal or liver dysfunction, having pre-existing retinopathy and being elderly. HCQ continues to be a valuable drug in treating rheumatic disease, but clinicians need to be aware of the associated risks and to have arrangements in place that would enable early detection of toxicity. SN - 1462-0332 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26428520/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/rheumatology/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/rheumatology/kev357 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -