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Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis.
Mediators Inflamm 2015; 2015:872152MI

Abstract

The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka, Japan ; Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Hyogo, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Osaka, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

26494949

Citation

Nishikawa, Hiroki, and Yukio Osaki. "Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis." Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2015, 2015, p. 872152.
Nishikawa H, Osaki Y. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:872152.
Nishikawa, H., & Osaki, Y. (2015). Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis. Mediators of Inflammation, 2015, p. 872152. doi:10.1155/2015/872152.
Nishikawa H, Osaki Y. Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis. Mediators Inflamm. 2015;2015:872152. PubMed PMID: 26494949.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Liver Cirrhosis: Evaluation, Nutritional Status, and Prognosis. AU - Nishikawa,Hiroki, AU - Osaki,Yukio, Y1 - 2015/09/30/ PY - 2015/05/19/received PY - 2015/07/08/revised PY - 2015/07/13/accepted PY - 2015/10/24/entrez PY - 2015/10/27/pubmed PY - 2016/8/16/medline SP - 872152 EP - 872152 JF - Mediators of inflammation JO - Mediators Inflamm. VL - 2015 N2 - The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of three major nutrients: protein, fat, and carbohydrate. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease. Liver cirrhosis (LC) results from different mechanisms of liver injury that lead to necroinflammation and fibrosis. LC has been seen to be not a single disease entity but one that can be graded into distinct clinical stages related to clinical outcome. Several noninvasive methods have been developed for assessing liver fibrosis and these methods have been used for predicting prognosis in patients with LC. On the other hand, subjects with LC often have protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and poor physical activity. These conditions often result in sarcopenia, which is the loss of skeletal muscle volume and increased muscle weakness. Recent studies have demonstrated that PEM and sarcopenia are predictive factors for poorer survival in patients with LC. Based on these backgrounds, several methods for evaluating nutritional status in patients with chronic liver disease have been developed and they have been preferably used in the clinical field practice. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge in the field of LC from the viewpoints of diagnostic method, nutritional status, and clinical outcomes. SN - 1466-1861 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26494949/full_citation L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/872152 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -