Nutritional Interventions in Heart Failure: A Systematic Review of the Literature.J Card Fail 2015; 21(12):989-99JC
Heart failure (HF) is a major health care burden and there is a growing need to develop strategies to maintain health and sustain quality of life in persons with HF. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the components of nutrition interventions and to establish an evidence base for future advances in HF nutrition research and practice.
METHODS AND RESULTS
Cinahl, Pubmed, and Embase were searched to identify articles published from 2005 to 2015. A total of 17 randomized controlled trials were included in this review. Results were divided into 2 categories of nutrition-related interventions: (1) educational and (2) prescriptive. Educational interventions improved patient outcomes such as adherence to dietary restriction in urine sodium levels and self-reported diet recall. Educational and prescriptive interventions resulted in decreased readmission rates and patient deterioration. Adherence measurement was subjective in many studies. Evidence showed that a normal-sodium diet and 1-liter fluid restriction along with high diuretic dosing enhanced B-type natriuretic peptide, aldosterone, tumor necrosis factor α, and interleukin-6 markers.
Educational nutrition interventions positively affect patient clinical outcomes. Although clinical practice guidelines support a low-sodium diet and fluid restriction, research findings have revealed that a low-sodium diet may be harmful. Future research should examine the role of macronutrients, food quality, and energy balance in HF nutrition.