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Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease.

Abstract

The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. Electronic address: paul.bernstein@hsc.utah.edu.

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    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. Electronic address: binxing.li@hsc.utah.edu.

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. Electronic address: preejith.vachali@hsc.utah.edu.

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. Electronic address: aruna.gorusupudi@utah.edu.

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. Electronic address: r.shyam@utah.edu.

    ,

    Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84132, USA. Electronic address: brad.henriksen@hsc.utah.edu.

    Macular Pigment Research Group, Vision Research Centre, School of Health Science, Carriganore House, Waterford Institute of Technology West Campus, Carriganore, Waterford, Ireland. Electronic address: jmnolan@wit.ie.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Antioxidants
    Diet
    Eye Diseases
    Haplorhini
    Humans
    Lutein
    Macula Lutea
    Macular Degeneration
    Retinal Pigments
    Zeaxanthins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26541886

    Citation

    Bernstein, Paul S., et al. "Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-zeaxanthin: the Basic and Clinical Science Underlying Carotenoid-based Nutritional Interventions Against Ocular Disease." Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 50, 2016, pp. 34-66.
    Bernstein PS, Li B, Vachali PP, et al. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016;50:34-66.
    Bernstein, P. S., Li, B., Vachali, P. P., Gorusupudi, A., Shyam, R., Henriksen, B. S., & Nolan, J. M. (2016). Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 50, pp. 34-66. doi:10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.10.003.
    Bernstein PS, et al. Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Meso-zeaxanthin: the Basic and Clinical Science Underlying Carotenoid-based Nutritional Interventions Against Ocular Disease. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2016;50:34-66. PubMed PMID: 26541886.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin: The basic and clinical science underlying carotenoid-based nutritional interventions against ocular disease. AU - Bernstein,Paul S, AU - Li,Binxing, AU - Vachali,Preejith P, AU - Gorusupudi,Aruna, AU - Shyam,Rajalekshmy, AU - Henriksen,Bradley S, AU - Nolan,John M, Y1 - 2015/11/02/ PY - 2015/04/29/received PY - 2015/10/04/revised PY - 2015/10/29/accepted PY - 2015/11/7/entrez PY - 2015/11/7/pubmed PY - 2016/9/16/medline KW - Age-related macular degeneration KW - Carotenoid KW - Lutein KW - Macular pigment KW - Nutrition KW - Zeaxanthin SP - 34 EP - 66 JF - Progress in retinal and eye research JO - Prog Retin Eye Res VL - 50 N2 - The human macula uniquely concentrates three carotenoids: lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin. Lutein and zeaxanthin must be obtained from dietary sources such as green leafy vegetables and orange and yellow fruits and vegetables, while meso-zeaxanthin is rarely found in diet and is believed to be formed at the macula by metabolic transformations of ingested carotenoids. Epidemiological studies and large-scale clinical trials such as AREDS2 have brought attention to the potential ocular health and functional benefits of these three xanthophyll carotenoids consumed through the diet or supplements, but the basic science and clinical research underlying recommendations for nutritional interventions against age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases are underappreciated by clinicians and vision researchers alike. In this review article, we first examine the chemistry, biochemistry, biophysics, and physiology of these yellow pigments that are specifically concentrated in the macula lutea through the means of high-affinity binding proteins and specialized transport and metabolic proteins where they play important roles as short-wavelength (blue) light-absorbers and localized, efficient antioxidants in a region at high risk for light-induced oxidative stress. Next, we turn to clinical evidence supporting functional benefits of these carotenoids in normal eyes and for their potential protective actions against ocular disease from infancy to old age. SN - 1873-1635 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26541886/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1350-9462(15)00086-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -